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Flashcards in infectious disease prevention and control Deck (69):
1

early 20th century leading causes of death

respiratory diseases (e.g tuberculosis and diarrheal diseases were major killers)

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what is a leading causes of death world in children wide and second leading cause of death overall?

infectious disease

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current infectious disease concerns

HIV, pneumonias and influenza, VRSA, MRSA, SARS

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latent period

time delay between exposure and onset of contagiousness (ability to spread pathogen to others)

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incubation period

time delay between exposure and onset of disease signs and symptoms

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communicable period

contagious time, when person to person transmission is possible

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sporadic disease

disease that occurs occasionally in a population

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endemic disease

disease constantly present in a population

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epidemic disease

disease beyond normal expected rates in one region or community

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pandemic disease

worldwide epidemic

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stages of infection in populations

case, cluster/outbreak, epidemic, pandemic

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index case

the first case identified in a population

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primary case

the person that brings the infection into a population

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secondary case

someone who is infected by a primary case

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tertiary case

someone who is infected y a secondary case

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chain of infection

reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host

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reserviors of infection are continual (or potential) sources of infection.
1. human
2. animal
3. nonliving

human- AIDS, gonorrhea (carriers may have subclinical infections or latent diseases)
animal- rabies, lyme disease (some zoonotic diseases may be transmitted to humans
nonliving- botulism, tetanus, legionnaires disease (soil or water)

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west nile virus in children

often asymptomatic

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west nile virus in elderly

a lot of subclinical cases will have severe sx

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host response: infection

the entry and multiplication of an infectious agent in a host (sometimes subclinical, usually symptomatic)
-incubating the organism (pre-disease)
-disease
-convalescing from exposure to the organism (post-disease)

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colonization

presence of an organism in a host

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host carrier state

colonization without apparent disease but can often spread disease (a lot of nurses are carriers for MRSA)

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concerns about carriers: numbers

carriers may outnumber cases. contribute to high prevalence of disease

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concerns about carriers: hard to identify

carriers do not have symptoms to determine if they should be tested

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concerns about carriers: mobility

carriers are healthy and often mobile, cases are sick and often their mobility is restricted

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concerns about carriers: chronicity

carriers can have infection later in life, re-introduce infection to those who were previously cleared and contribute to endemic disease

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vertical transmission

mom to baby

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horizontal transmission

contact. person to person

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direct/indirect

sexual contact =direct
clothing, toys, and the like= indirect

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common vehicle

infected host to susceptible host via food, water, body fluids

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I love you

I really do

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vectorborne

arthropods

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contact transmission- horizontal transmission

bite, kissing, touch

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contact transmission- indirect

formites (inanimate object that is touched)

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airborne transmission

NOT the same as droplet, small particles (droplet nuclei or dust) remain suspended in air, sometimes for a long time, may disperse widely, inhaled in alveoli

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airborne transmission examples

measles, chicken pox, TB, smallpox

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common vehicle transmission

contaminated food items- food, water, blood, saliva, medical device. vehicle is taken into the body as opposed to formites

*almost daily- food eaten at a community level

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parasitic diseases

need a host to survice

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intestinal parasitic infections

greater concern in developing countries. pinworm most common helminthic infection in US, usually in schools, institutions or overcrowding

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parasitic opportunistic infections

most frequent or severe in immunocompromised

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parasitic diseases control and prevention

early dx, improved hygiene and vector control, education and environmental improvements

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droplet transmission PPD

surgical mask, gown, gloves

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droplet transmission

droplets produced during coughing, sneezing, talking, exchanging of spit. droplets can travel 5 feet through air,, they land on mucus membranes of eyes, nose, or mouth or hands (to put to a mucus membrane). droplets NOT suspended in the air

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droplet transmission examples

influenza, pertussis, meningoccocal meningitis

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vector borne transmission

transmission through a living object (not people)

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shigella

vector borne transmission. transmitted by the fleet of flies

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most common vector borne disease in united states

lyme disease

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common vectors

mosquitos, rodents (hantavirus and plague), ticks

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lyme disease

usually occurs in the summer in rural and suburban areas or the northeast, mid-atlantic, and north-central states, particularly wisconsin and minnesota

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rocky mountain spotted fever

most commonly occurs in the southeast, oklahoma, kansas, and missouri

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tick-borne diseases

prevention and control

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virulence

the ability of an agent (pathogen) to produce a reaction that leads to illness

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host

is the person or living organism (animal, plants) that becomes ill after exposure to the target

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agent

is a microorganism, chemical or form of energy whose presence or absence is essential for the occurrence of a disease or other adverse health outcomes

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environment

for communicable disease refers to the factor or factors outside of the host that affects the agent and the opportunity for exposure

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10 principles of disease prevention

immunization, health education, sanitation, notification, diagnosis, investigation, block transmission, treatment, isolation, quarantine

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isolation

separation of ill persons from those who are healthy. may be in a separate wing, floor or other designated area (i.e cohorting)

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quarentine

separation and restriction of movement of currently healthy persons who have been exposed to disease and may become infectious. they are separated from family members, unless they were also exposed

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primary prevention

to prevent the occurrence of disease
immunization, safe sex practices, education, sanitation, restaurant inspections, block transmission

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secondary prevention

to prevent the spread of disease
notification, diagnosis, investigation, quarentine

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tertiary prevention

to reduce complications of disease
treatment, maintenance

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natural immunity

species-specific resistance to diseases of other species

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passive immunization

we are given antibodies.. passive immunity doesnt last long, weeks to months
vertical-mother to infant
artificial- IVIG (intravenous immune globulin)

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acquired immunity

exposure to disease

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active immunization

we make antibodies. active immunity is long lasting, and sometimes for life. ex-exposure to vaccine

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RIG

rabies immune globulin

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herd immunity

concerned with immunity at the population level. defined as the resistance of a community or population to the invasion and spread of an infectious agent, based on high proportions of immunity in people in the community

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who relies on herd immunity

infants, immunocompromised

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rule of thumb for herd immunity

80-85% needs to be immune to prevent the majority of diseases