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MCD Cell Pathology > Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (33):
1

what is inflammation?

reaction of living vascularised tissue to sub-lethal cellular injury

2

what is the function of inflammation?

to remove the cause of injury and initiate repair

3

what are the 2 types of inflammation?

- acute (hours/days)
- chronic (weeks/months)

4

what harmful effect can inflammation have?

can cause tissue destruction

5

what causes inflammation?

- infection
- foreign body
- mechanical trauma
- chemical injury
- radiation injury

6

what are the inflammatory reaction components?

- cells
- ECM
- soluble factors

7

what are the cells involved in inflammation?

- neutrophils
- macrophages
- lymphocytes
- eosinophils
- mast cells

8

what are the ECM components involved in inflammation?

- collagen
- proteoglycans
- fibroblasts

9

what are the soluble factors involved in inflammation?

- antibodies
- cytokines
- complement system
- coagulation system

10

what are the features and functions of neutrophils?

- contain cytoplasmic granules
- phagocytosis
- degranulation

11

what are the features and functions of monocytes/macrophages?

- monocytes in blood give rise to macrophages in tissue
- phagocytosis
- control many other inflammatory cells
- release cytokines

12

what are the features and functions of eosinophils?

- seen in allergic and parasitic causes of inflammation

13

what are the features and functions of mast cells?

seen in allergic diseases

14

what are the LOCAL clinical features of acute inflammation?

- calor = heat
- tumour = swelling (oedema)
- rubor = redness
- dolor = pain
- loss of function

15

what is calor caused by?

histamine mediated vasodilation

16

what is tumour caused by?

histamine mediated increase in permeability of vessels leading to increased interstitial fluid (oedema)

17

what is rubor caused by?

slow blood flow resulting in redness

18

what is loss of function caused by?

swelling and pain

19

what is histamine?

- vasoactive amine
- produced by mast cells
- packaged into granules inside mast cells and binding of antigen to IgE on the surface of mast cells causes degranulation
- leads to vasodilation and increased vascular permeability

20

name 4 important mediators other than histamine

- prostaglandins
- chemokines
- complement
- cytokines (interleukins, TNF)

21

what can target the inflammatory mediator histamine?

anti-histamines

22

what can target the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin?

aspirin

23

what can target the inflammatory mediators IL-1 and TNF?

anti-TNF antibodies

24

what is colloid osmotic pressure?

a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in a blood vessel's plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system

25

what does colloid osmotic pressure do in terms of hydrostatic pressure?

opposes hydrostatic pressure

26

what is exudate?

a fluid with a high content of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation

27

what is transudate?

caused by disturbances in hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure

NOT CAUSED BY INFLAMMATION

28

what does exudate consist of?

- fluid
- cells
- proteins including fibrin
- antibodies

29

what is the function of fluid in the exudate?

dilutes pathogen and allows soluble mediators to spread

30

what is the function of fibrin in the exudate?

contains pathogen to stop it spreading

gives inflammatory cells substrate to hold on to/migrate through

31

what are the 3 different types of exudate?

- serous = fluid filled
- fibrinous = high fibrin content
- purulent = pus-filled

32

what are the cellular events that neutrophils do in acute inflammation?

1) enter tissue
2) migrate to site of cell injury - chemotaxis
3) become activated
4) carry out their designate role (e.g. phagocytosis)
5) interact with other cell types and release soluble mediators

33

what are the 3 main roles of neutrophils?

- kill bacteria and recruit more cells
- phagocytosis
- degranulation