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Flashcards in inflammation Deck (30):
1

inflammatory process

• Increased blood flow
• Increased permeability
• Leukocytes

2

SS of infection localized

Localized
H- heat
I- Idle
P- pain
E- edema
R- redness

3

SS of infection systemic

• Fever
• Leukocytosis
o Increase in WBC
• Malaise
o Feeling of unwellness
• Nausea
• Anorexia
• P temp, HR could go up

4

ppl at risk

Populations at Risk
• Anyone!!
• Particularly - Elderly & Young
Individual Risk Factors
• Auto immune disease
• Genetic component
• Environment they are exposed to (pollultion)

5

Communicable disease

is the infectious process transmitted from one person to another. Pathogen – microorganism capable of producing illness

6

Carriers

are animals of persons who show no symptoms of illness but who have pathogens on or in their bodies that can be transferred to others.

7

Pandemic

worldwide epidemic of a disease.

8

Colonization

occurs when a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection

9

Immunization

process by which resistance to an infectious disease is produced or augmented.

10

Spore

remain viable even when deprived of water and resistant to drying

11

Epidemic

more cases of an infectious disease than is normal for the population of geographic area.

12

examples of Bacterial, Viral, Fungal, Parascitic, Other type of infection

Bacterial - pneumonia, Cdif,
Viral - hepatitis, hpv,
Fungal - pandetitis, ringworm
Parascitic - malaria,
Other type - opportunistic - infection that develops because of severely compromised host

13

THE POTENTIAL FOR MICROORGANISMS TO CAUSE DISEASE DEPENDS ON:

• Sufficient number of organism - sometimes you don’t need a lot of them sometimes you do need a lot
• Virulence – ability to produce disease
• Ability to enter and survive in the host
• Susceptibility of the host

14

WHAT DOES A RESERVOIR REQUIRE FOR PATHOGENS TO THRIVE

1. Dark
2. Moist
3. Warmth
4. Something to feed on
5. Alkaline pH about 5-8

15

SS of infection

Localized
• Reddness
• Swelling
• Pain
• Heat
• Edema
• Purulent drainage
• Depending on what organism it is for what its causing
Systemic
• much sicker patients
• Fever

16

types of exudate

Serous
Sanguineous
Serosanguineous
Purulent

17

risk factors for infection

• Broken skin/mucosa
• Traumatized tissue
• Decreased ciliary action
• Obstructed urine flow
• Altered peristalsis
• Change in ph
• Decreased mobility • Decreased hemoglobin
• Suppression of WBC
• Suppressed inflammatory
response
• Low WBC - eg someone receiving chemo radiation

18

most critical lab test for infection

most critical lab test for infection 5 to 10 x10(9)/L there are 5 primary types
1. Neutrophils
2. Lymphocytes
3. Monocytes
4. Eosinophils
5. Basophils

19

when can u have active immunity to something

Active immunity to microorganisms does not occur until there is natural exposure or immunization that leads to the development of antibodies

20

complications of infection

Dehydration
• Increased metabolic rate
• Diaphysis
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
Abscess formation
• pocket of puss
Endocarditis
• Inflammation infection into their heart
Infectious disease-related cancers
• Hep B and C
Infertility
• Cervical cancers
Congential abnormalities
• Rubella
Septicemia sepsis, bacteremia, septic shock
• Cleaning cat liter

21

sepsis

Potentially life-threatening complication of an infection.

Chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight the infection trigger inflammatory responses throughout the body.

Any type of infection — bacterial, viral or fungal — can lead to sepsis, most likely varieties include: pneumonia, abdominal infection, kidney infection, bloodstream infection (bacteremia)

This inflammation can trigger a cascade of changes that can damage multiple organ systems, causing them to fail.

22

medical/surgical asepsis

1. Medical asepsis–procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms ex. Hand hygiene, clean gloves, sterile asepsis = surgical instruments
2. Surgical asepsis–practices that keep an area or objects free from all microorganisms non pathogenic and pathogenic including spores and viruses

23

contact precautions

Reduce transmission by direct skin-to-skin or indirect with contaminated objects
Examples:
• Acute diarrhea
• VRE + MRSA

24

airborne precautions

Reduce transmission of airborne droplets or dust particles containing the infectious agent.
Examples:
• TB
• Chicken pox
• measles

25

droplet precautions

Reduce transmission of large droplets generated during coughing, talking, sneezing or suctioning.
Can infect others if droplets land on conjunctivae, nasal mucosa or mouth.
Examples:
• Meningitis
• Influenza
• Mumps, pertussis, diptheria

26

MRSA

Staphylococcus live in the mm of the respiratory tract and skin
• Community and hospitals
• Silent carriers – colonized bacteria grow on the anterior part of nose
• After exposure can live on a person’s hands for more than 3 hours

27

VRE

• Primarily found GI and female genital tracts as part of normal flora
• Direct contact
• Bacteria can live on equipment and environmental surfaces

28

Cdiff

• Produces two endotoxins that can cause damage to mucosal lining of the bowel
• Forms spores – can live for months on environmental sources.
• Most common healthcare associated diarrhea
• Mild diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis

29

THE FOUR MAJOR ELEMENTS OF PREVENTIVE PRACTICE:


CNO Practice Standard:
1. hand hygiene
2. PPE
3. proper care of equipment .. Proper disposal of sharps
4. health practices of nurse

30

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR SITES FOR NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS?


• Catheters
• Blood
• Respiratory infections
• Surgical or traumatic wounds