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Flashcards in Inflammation - Pathology Deck (93)
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What are the sings & symptoms of inflammation? (5)

heat
redness
swelling
pain
impaired function

1

Pathology of inflammation (4)

circulatory changes
vessel wall changes
mediators of inflammation (M of I)
cellular events of inflammation

2

What are the circulatory changes?

injury stimulation-->vasoconstriction-->vasodilation--->:
1) hyperemia (redness, swelling, warmth): increased intracapillary pressure
2) edema: (in capillaries and venules) filtration of plasma through vessel wall
3) congestion: blood flow in dilated capillaries and venules is slow
--> WBCs attach to endothelium (wall of blood vessel)--> release of mediators of inflammation (derived from WBC and platelets)--> platelets initiate clotting

3

Vessel wall changes

changes in permeability of capillary walls in response to inflammation

4

Reasons for vessel wall changes during inflammation

1) increased intravascular pressure (congestion)
2) slowing of the circulation => less oxygen and nutrients to endothelial cells
3) adhesion of WBC and platelets to endothelial cells
4) release of mediator of inflammation (from WBC, platelets, endothelial cells, plasma)

5

What are the mediators of inflammation? (2)

plasma derived
cell derived

6

Plasma derived inflammatory mediator

circulate in inactive form -> transformed into active form by ACTIVATOR

7

Cell derived inflammatory mediator

1) preformed and stored in WBC, platelets ... or synthesized on demand.
2) preformed mediators - quick release (histamine)
3) synthesized mediators - released later

8

Sample of preformed cell derived inflammatory mediator

histamine

9

Chemistry of mediators of inflammation

- biogenic amines (histamine)
- peptides (bradykinin)
- arachidonic acid derivatives (prostaglandins)

10

Effects of meditoary of inflammation

- vasodilation or vasoconstriction
- alternation of vascular permeability
- activation of inflammation cells
- chemotaxis
- cytotoxicity
- degradation of tissues
- fever
- pain

11

Which cells release histamine during inflammation? (3)

platelets
mast cells
basophils

12

Effects of histamine

- increased blood vessel permeability => fluids and cells can exit into intersititial spaces
- vasodilation
- effects are quick but last less than 30 min. (histamine inactivated by enzyme histaminase)

13

bradykinin

plasma protein

14

Effects of bradykinin

- similar to histamine but slower
- amplifies and sustains response to injury
- PAIN

15

Which chemical causes pain during inflammation?

bradykinin

16

What can activate the complement system of inflammation?

antigen-antibody complexes, bacterial toxins, fungi, snake venom, etc.

17

All components of complement system promote ____.

inflammation

18

Where does arachidonic acid derived from?

phospholipids of cell membrane

19

Arachidonic acid synthesis blocks by _______.

corticosterioids

20

Prostaglandin synthesis blocks by _______.

ASPRIN

21

emigration of leukocytes (WBC)

diapedesis = active movement of WBCs through capillary wall into tissues

22

transudation

leakage of fluid rich in proteins

23

transudate from capillaries (more permeable) into interstitial space

edema

24

exudation

emigration (diapedesis) of cells and fluid through capillary wall

25

What's the difference between transudation and exudation?

exudation contains inflammatory cells (WBCs) and much more protein than transudation

26

What's chemotaxis?

active movement of WBCs towrads certain chemicals;
movement along concentration gradient of those chemicals.

27

What's chemoattractant?

It's chemotactic agent.
It derived from bacteria damaged tissues, activated complement, etc.

28

What cells arrive first in acute I inflammation?

neutrophils

29

What cells have longest life among cells of inflammation?

macrophages