Inhalation Anesthesia Part 1 - Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2020 - Pharmacology 1 > Inhalation Anesthesia Part 1 - Quiz 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inhalation Anesthesia Part 1 - Quiz 4 Deck (47)
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1

What is the chemical structure of all commonly used Inhalation Agents?

Ethers or Aliphatic Hydrocarbons w/ no more than 4 Carbon atoms.

 

2

Why is the size of the Inhalation Agent molecules significant?

If too big, it loses its Lipid Solubility

Length is < 1.5x the diameter

3

What are the Physical Properties of Modern Inhaled Anesthetics?

Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Except: Nitrous Oxide

4

Which Gas is this?

Halothane

5

What gas is this?

Isoflurane

6

What Gas is this?

Desflurane

7

What Gas is this?

Sevoflurane

 

8

What characteristics are effected with halogenation of organic compounds?

(adding {F], [Cl], [Br], or [I])

Potency

Flammability

Chemical Stability

Arrhythmogenic Properties

9

What happens as you add more fluorine atoms to an anesthetic molecule?

Slowing of Biodegradation

10

What are the only "true gases" of inhaled anesthetics?

N2O & O2

The rest are Vapors of Volatile Liquids

11

What chemical properties & Physical properties make anesthetic gases lipid soluble?

Non-Ionized & Low Molecular Weight

12

What is the Goal of Inhaled Anesthesia and how how is that goal accomplished?

Produce anesthetic state by establishing partial pressure of an agent in lungs that then equalizes w/ the brain & spinal cord.

13

What is the "MAC" value in regards to inhaled anesthetics?

MAC = Minimal Alveolar Concentration

It is the minimal concentration of vapor in the alveoli needed to prevent movement in 50% of patients in response to surgical stimulation.

14

What is the definition of General Anesthesia?

A drug's capacity to induce & sustain a state of

Unconsciousness
Amnesia
Analgesia
Immobility

15

What is a property that Anesthetic gases do not have?

Pain Properties

16

What is the Meyer-Overton Rule?

Lipid Solubility is directly proportional to Potency

17

How can an Anesthetic Gas be reversed?

Reversal achieved with Application of Pressure

18

How would a Reduction of Body Temperature affect anesthetic requirement?

↓Body Temp = ↓Anesthetic Requirement

19

How is MAC% related to Potency & Lipid Solubility?

MAC% is inversely related to Potency & Lipid Solubility

The more Potent the agent, the less MAC

20

What is the MAC% of N2O?

104

21

How are Inhaled Anesthetics thought to work?

Enhances Inhibitory Ion Channels & Block Function of Excitatory Ion Channels

22

What happens when Inhibitory Channels are Enhanced?

Hyperpolarization via Chloride Influx via GABA or Glycine receptors

or

or Potassium Efflux

23

How is Immobility achieved with Anesthetic Gases?

Activates Descending Noradrenergic Pathways from brainstem and Blocks Input in Dorsal Horn

Immobility is measurable by MAC

24

In an anesthetic molecule, if the carbon chain exceeds 4-5 carbons, what happens?

Loss of Immobility

25

What are the structural targets that are involved in the Amnestic effects fo anesthesia?

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Cortex

 

26

In terms of delivery, What are the factors that determine Inspired Gas Concentration?

Fresh Gas Flow Rate

Circuit Volume

Circuit Absorption

27

What factors determine Alveolar Gas Concentration?

  1. Uptake
  2. Ventilation
  3. Concentration Effect
  4. Second Gas Effect
    • Augmented Inflow effect

28

When is Equilibrium of Anesthetic Gas achieved?

When partial pressures are equal in the alveoli, blood, and CNS

PalveoliPbloodPCNS

29

What are the factors that contribute to Anesthetic Gas Equilibrium?

  • Inhaled Gas moves quickly to and from lung, blood, & CNS
  • Plasma and tissue dont absorb the gas
  • Minimal Gas metabolism, excretion, and redistribution

30

In a container, how is vapor pressure related to the volume of the Liquid?

As long as there is liquid in the container, Vapor Pressure is independent of the volume of the liquid