Inhalation / Non-thermal Burns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Inhalation / Non-thermal Burns Deck (25)
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1

How does inhalation injury affect

Damages airway due to inhalation of hot gas or combustion causing irritation
Systemic affects of absorption of CO

2

Mortality

Increased by 40%

3

How long for symptoms to present

Can take up to 5 days

4

When should you suspect

Closed space / house fired
Any burn to head and neck
Facial injury
Singed nasal hair
Soot in respiratory or pharyngeal secretion
Wheeze
Hoarse voice
Brassy cough
SOB
Tachypneoa
Stridor
Altered consciousness
Can obstruct due to swelling of vocal cord

5

How do you classify

Supraglottic - above larynx
Subglottic - below larynx

6

What causes supraglottic

Primary thermal due to inhalation of gas

7

What happens

Inflammatory mediators
Cause oedema and obstruction

8

What causes subglottic

Chemical injury
Damages alveoli resulting in interfere in gas exchange
Heat wouldn't travel that far

9

What happens

Systemic absorption
CO and cyanide = most important
Shifts shifts oxyhaemoglobin curve to the left
leads to LOC, neurotoxicity and convulsion

10

Mortality

Unlikely to survive

11

How do you investigate

ABG - CO level / carboxyHb
CXR
Bronchoscopy to exclude pulmonary injury - anaesthesist can do if suspect

12

What will ABG show

Metabolic acidosis due to CO

13

How do you manage

Humidified O2 at 15l non-rebreath
Large bore IV access
Monitor sats
Senior help - anaesthetist
Greater fluid requirement
Analgesia

14

What may be needed and when

Hyperbaric O2 if CO >30%

15

What can cause electrical burns

Low voltage
High voltage
Lightening

16

What is amount of heat proportional to

Current
Resistance
Duration

17

What has most resistance and least

Bone = most
Fat
Tendon
Skin
Muscle
Vessel
Nerve = least

18

How do you manage

Turn of power
Same as above

19

What is required within 24 hours

ECG

20

What can cause chemical burn

Acid
Alkali = more dangerous

21

What does extend depend on

Toxicity
Quantitiy
Concentration
Temperature of chemical
SA exposed
Duration of contact
Systemic effects

22

What are common acid

HCL = extremely corrosive
Nitric
Sulphuric

23

What happens with HCL

H = skin injury
Fluroide binds Ca = hypocalcaemia

24

How do you manage

Irrigation until pH back to neutral
Do not apply neutralisation as further damage

25

What suggests NAI

Multiple demarcated
Unusual body area - back, shoulder, buttock
Implement