Flashcards in Inorganic 2 Definitions Deck (26):
What is a complex ion?
central metal atom with ligands attached by coordinate covalent bonds
Gives examples of ligands
water, ammonia, chloride
What is a coordinate covalent bond (dative) ?
a type of covalent bond where both electrons come from the same atom
How do you determine the charge of a complex?
Combine the charge of the central metal and the charges of the ligands
What is a coordination number? What are the most common coordination numbers?
the number of dative bonds to the central metal ion; the most common are 6 and 4
How is the shape of a complex determined?
by the coordination number
What are the shapes of the complexes with the coordination numbers 6, 4, and 2?
6 is octahedral, 4 is square planar or tetrahedral, 2 is linear
What is enthalpy?
the energy required to make a system: the internal energy plus the energy of volume (H=U+ p*V)
What is enthalpy change of solution? What does it depend on?
overall amount of heat that is released or absorbed during the dissolving process; it depends on the intermolecular forces of the solute and the solvent
What is standard enthalpy of formation?
the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 molar compound to form from its constituent elements under standard conditions
What is hydration?
the dissolving process when water is used as solvent
What is lattice energy?
the energy required to break apart an ionic solid
What is enthalpy of solvation?
the energy released when 1 mole solid is dissolved in a solvent
What is Henry's law?
an equation describing the relationship between the pressure and solubility of a gas C=kP
What is vapour pressure?
the pressure exerted by a vapour that is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid in a closed system
What is an ideal solution and what is a real solution?
an ideal solution is a solution that follows Raoult's law while a real solution does not follow it
What is Raoult's law?
law stating that the vapor pressure of an ideal solution is proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent
What is Dalton's law?
this is the law of partial pressures, it states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases, is equal to the sum of partial pressures of the component gases
What makes up the composition of air?
Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and argon (1%)
What is ppm?
stands for parts per million, used to quantify very small amounts of solute in solvent; mass of component in solution divided by the total mass of the solution multiplied by 10^6
What is decompression sickness?
also called divers disease.. condition that happens when the pressure around you rapidly decreases. in the compressed air that divers breathe, your body uses up oxygen while nitrogen dissolves in your blood; when water pressure around you decreases too rapidly the nitrogen separates out of your blood and forms bubbles in your blood or tissues
What is artificial air?
the air used by divers; mixture of oxygen, nitrogen and helium because pure oxygen becomes toxic at depth
What is boiling point?
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is at equilibrium with it's external pressure surrounding the liquid; liquid has phase shift and evaporates
What is freezing point?
temperature where the solid phase and liquid phase exist at equilibrium
What is a colligative property?
physical property that only depends on the concentration of solute particles in an amount of solvent (identity doesn't matter)