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Flashcards in insect communication Deck (40)
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1

What is communication?

a signal produced by one individual that causes a change in behavior of another conspecific individual

2

What are the MAJOR modes of communication in insects?

1. chemicals (pheromones)
2. light
3. sound

3

What is the range, rate of change, move around obstacles and energetic cost of visual signals in insects?

range: medium
rate of change: fast
move around obstacles: poor
energetic cost: low

4

What is the range, rate of change, move around obstacles and energetic cost of acoustical signals in insects?

range: long
rate of change: fast
move around obstacles: good
energetic cost: high

5

What is the range, rate of change, move around obstacles and energetic cost of tactile signals in insects?

range: short
rate of change: fast
move around obstacles: poor
energetic cost: low

6

What is the range, rate of change, move around obstacles and energetic cost of chemical signals in insects?

range: long
rate of change: slow
move around obstacles: good
energetic cost: low

7

What are pheromones?

chemical signals that carry a message between conspecifics

8

Where are volatile pheromones?

percieved by olfactory sensilla on the antennae (moths, bark beetles and aphids)

9

What are non-volatile pheromones?

deposited on a surface and percieved by gustatory sensilla on antennae or tarsi (cheery fruit flies)

10

What is a major benefit of using pheromones?

extreme species specificity although often through multicomponent blends

11

What are pheromones in danaid butterflies?

modified pyrrolizidine alkaloids obtained from plants

12

Where are pheromones often synthesized?

in exocrine glands

13

What is the synthesis of pheromones regulated by?

PBAN (pheromones biosynthesis activating neurohormone) produced by the subesophageal ganglion

14

What is a draw back of pheromone use?

they can be intercepted or even secreted by predators

15

What does the american bolas spider catch through secretion of pheromones?

smoky moth and bristly cutworm

16

What does the checkerd beetle catch through interception of pheromones?

bark beetle

17

What are two types of pheromones?

releasers and primers

18

What do releaser pheromones do?

cause an imediate behavioral response in the receiving individual

19

What do primer pheromones do?

cause longterm physiological changes in receivers

20

What are some types of receiver pheromones?

- sex attractants: often released by female - long distance
- aggregation:
- spacing (epideictic)
- alarm
- Trail

21

What do aggregation pheromones do?

brings many conspecifics together quickly
(egL mass attack of bark beetles on trees to overcome resin defenses)

22

What do spacing pheromones do?

evoke behaviors that lead to increased space between individuals
(eg: apple maggot flying oviposition deturrent pheromone)

23

What does an alarm pheromone do?

stimulates escape or other defensive behaviors
(eg: honeybee sting incites nestmates to sting, aphid attacked by predator causes others to flee)

24

What are trail pheromones used for?

insects lay trails to food sources
(eg: foraging ants)

25

What are some types of primer pheromones?

- colony pheromones
- gregarization pheromones

26

What do colony recognition pheromones do?

kin and colony recognition, control of reproduction and kin number, foraging behavior.
- normally produced by the queen and have both releaser and primer effects
- used by social insects

27

What do gregarization pheromones do?

cause transformations in locusts from the solitary phase to the gregarious phase.
- includes both releaser and primer effects
- produced in feces

28

What are the practical applications of insect pheromones?

- detection of pests (eg: gypsy moth in bc, beetles stored in grain)
- Population monitoring
- Mating disruption
- mass trapping
- attract and kill
- honeybee queen pheromone

29

What is an example of population monitoring in regards to pheromones?

codling moths in okanagan orchards. Traps indicate time of adult flights and population size - predicts when eggs will be laid. pest management practices can be timed for optimal efficiency

30

What is mating distribution in regards to pheromones?

sex pheromones of a species is identified and synthesized in large quantities. the synthetic pheromone is then released in great quantities in farm or orchard so males will be confused and unable to locate females with which to mate
eg: used on codling moth, fireworm and tomato pinkworm