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Flashcards in Insect Identification Deck (333):
1

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Neuroptera?

  • 2 pairs of wings, heavily netted
  • Wings may be held tent-like over the body or folded over the abdomen
  • Long, thread-like antennae

2

Order?

Siphonaptera (fleas).

3

Order?

Coleoptera.

4

Order?

Coleoptera.

5

Order?

Trichoptera.

6

Which 3 groups of insects are included in order Megaloptera?

Dobsonflies, fishflies, and alderflies.

7

Order?

Ephemeroptera.

8

Order?

Coleoptera.

9

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Psocoptera?

  • Small (a fraction of an inch long)
  • Distinct head, with threadlike antennae
  • Narrow "neck" between head and thorax

10

Order?

Orthoptera (katydid).

11

Order?

Protura.

12

Order?

Diptera.

13

Order?

Mantodea.

14

Order?

Mantodea.

15

How do you tell the difference between a hymenopteran and a clear-winged moth (family Sessiidae)?

A moth will be covered in scales so that it has shaggy (not fuzzy or hairy) legs and fringes of scales along the edges of its wings.

16

Which group of insects is included in order Mantodea?

Mantids.

17

Order?

Hemiptera.

18

How are sawflies different from other hymenopterans?

There is no narrowing of the abdomen where it meets the thorax (no "waist").

19

Which 2 groups of insects are included in order Odonata?

Dragonflies and damselflies.

20

Order?

Odonata.

21

What 2 characteristics can be used to identify order Phasmida?

  • Resemble a twig, branch, or leaf
  • Slow-moving

22

Order?

Isoptera.

23

Order?

Embiidina (or Embioptera).

24

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Thysanoptera?

  • Rod-shaped wings with fringe of hair
  • Cylindrical body
  • Found in flower heads or on plants

25

Order?

Neuroptera (antlion).

26

Order?

Isoptera.

27

What group of insects is included in order Ephemeroptera?

Mayflies.

28

What 5 characteristics can be used to identify order Siphonaptera?

  • Always found on mammals (sometimes birds)
  • Hard shell
  • No wings
  • Strong hind legs for jumping
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • (They're friggin' fleas)

29

Which groups of insects are included in order Coleoptera?

Fireflies, scarabs, weevils, ladybugs.... beetles!!

30

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Coleoptera?

  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Forewings often meet in a straight line down the back
  • Forewings are a hard shell, covering hindwings

31

Which 2 features are good for identifying adults of order Plecoptera?

  • Long tails (cerci)
  • Long forewings, held crossed over the back

(Plecoptera are stoneflies; they also have long antennae, and a pair of hindwings protected under the folded forewings.)

32

Order?

Neuroptera (lacewing).

33

Order?

Lepidoptera.

34

Order?

Hymenoptera.

35

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Trichoptera?

  • Wings and body covered in hair
  • Wings held tent-like over the abdomen
  • Caterpillar-like larvae that build cases

36

Order?

Diplura.

37

Order?

Hemiptera.

38

Order?

Grylloblattodea.

39

Order?

Phthiraptera.

40

Which 2 groups of insects are included in order Neuroptera?

Lacewings and antlions.

41

Order?

Ephemeroptera.

42

Order?

Coleoptera.

43

What group of insects is included in order Siphonaptera?

Fleas!!

44

Order?

Mantodea.

45

Order?

Raphidioptera.

46

Order?

Neuroptera (lacewing).

47

Order? Suborder?

Odonata; Zygoptera (damselflies).

48

Order?

Coleoptera.

49

Which groups of insects are included in order Diptera?

Flies, mosquitos, gnats, midges...

50

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Orthoptera?

  • Long hindlegs specialized for jumping
  • Thick (protective), slender forewings
  • Membranous, fan-shaped hindwings

51

Order?

Raphidioptera.

52

Order?

Mecoptera.

53

Order?

Isoptera.

54

What group of insects is included in order Trichoptera?

Caddisflies.

55

Order?

Trichoptera.

56

Order?

Blattodea.

57

What 5 characteristics can be used to identify order Ephemeroptera?

  • Triangular front wings, held up straight (sail-like) over body
  • Much smaller hindwings
  • 2-3 long threads ("tails") at end of abdomen
  • Long front legs, held out in front
  • No mouthparts in adults

58

Order?

Hemiptera.

59

Order? Family?

Hymenoptera; Formicidae (ants).

60

What 2 groups of insects are included in order Phasmida?

Walkingsticks and leaf insects.

61

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Mecoptera?

  • 2 pairs of long, slender wings
  • Elongated head, like a beak or snout
  • Abdomen resembles a scorpion stinger

62

What 2 characteristics can be used to identify order Raphidioptera?

  • Long, snake-like neck
  • 2 pairs of membranous wings, folded over the abdomen at rest

63

Order?

Phasmida.

64

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Thysanura?

  • Flat, tapered, segmented body
  • Long, thread-like antennae
  • 3 long cerci ("tails")

65

What 4 characteristics can be used to identify order Hymenoptera?

  • 4 membranous wings
  • Narrow waist (usually)
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Stinger or ovipositor (females)

66

What group of insects is included in order Thysanoptera?

Thrips.

67

How can you tell the difference between butterflies and moths?

Butterflies have threadlike antennae, with knobbed or hooked tips; moth antennae have no distinct tip structures and are often feathered.

68

What 5 characteristics can be used to identify order Phthiraptera?

  • No wings
  • Eyes small or absent
  • Short antennae
  • Broad or conical head
  • Found on birds and mammals (because they're lice, gross)

69

Which groups of insects are included in order Hymenoptera?

Ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies.

70

Order?

Diptera.

71

Order?

Phasmida.

72

Order?

Ephemeroptera.

73

Order?

Phasmida.

74

What group of insects is included in order Diplura?

Primitive bristletails.

75

Order? Suborder?

Odonata; Anisoptera (dragonflies).

76

What order do cicadas belong to?

Hemiptera.

77

What are the 2 suborders within order Orthoptera?

Caelifera (grasshoppers) and Ensifera (katydids and crickets).

78

What order do bedbugs belong to?

Hemiptera.

79

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Strepsiptera?

  • Segmented, branching antennae
  • Protruding eyes
  • Large, fan-shaped hindwings, held twisted over the back at rest (males only - females are wingless)

80

Order?

Diptera.

81

What order do water striders belong to?

Hemiptera.

82

Order?

Orthoptera (Jerusalem cricket).

83

What 2 groups of insects are included in order Psocoptera?

Barklice and booklice.

84

Order?

Coleoptera.

85

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Mantodea?

  • Elongated, folded forelegs ("praying")
  • Triangular head
  • Can turn head from side to side

86

What order do aphids belong to?

Hemiptera.

87

Order?

Megaloptera.

88

Order?

Plecoptera.

89

What 4 characteristics can be used to identify order Diplura?

  • Small (2 inches or less)
  • Mostly white
  • No eyes
  • 2 cerci at the end of the abdomen: long (tail-like) or short (pincer-like)

90

What 4 characteristics can be used to identify order Hemiptera?

  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Wings often crossed over each other
  • Forewings half thick, half membranous
  • Hindwings smaller, membranous

(Some are wingless!)

91

What 4 characteristics can be used to identify order Blattodea?

  • Flat body
  • Spiny legs
  • Long antennae
  • Protective shell covering most of the head and abdomen
  • (it's a freaking cockroach!!)

92

Order?

Megaloptera.

93

Order?

Plecoptera.

94

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Odonata?

  • Long, thin body
  • Long, slender wings
  • Short antennae

95

How can you tell barklice and booklice apart?

Barklice are ~0.5 inches long, usually have 2 pairs of wings, and usually live outdoors. Booklice are much smaller, wingless, and usually found indoors.

96

Order?

Isoptera.

97

Order?

Orthoptera.

98

Order?

Hymenoptera.

99

Order?

Coleoptera.

100

Order?

Ephemeroptera.

101

What group of insects is included in order Embioptera/Embiidina?

Webspinners.

102

Which family of moths mimic wasps and bees?

Sessiidae (clear-winged moths).

103

What group of insects is included in order Mecoptera?

Scorpionflies.

104

Order?

Archaeognatha.

105

Order?

Mecoptera.

106

Order?

Megaloptera.

107

Order?

Megaloptera.

108

What group of insects is included in order Grylloblattodea?

Rock/ice crawlers.

109

Order? Superfamily?

Hymenoptera; Apoidea (bees).

110

Order?

Coleoptera.

111

What group of insects is included in order Phthiraptera?

Biting and sucking lice.

112

Order?

Odonata.

113

Order?

Plecoptera.

114

Order?

Coleoptera.

115

Which groups of insects are included in order Orthoptera?

Grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids.

116

What is the difference between ants (family Formicidae) and bees/wasps?

In ants, the metasoma (where the abdomen joins the thorax) is humped and clearly separate from the rest of the abdomen, and the antennae are elbowed with a long first segment.

117

Order?

Mecoptera.

118

How can you tell bees apart from wasps?

In bees, the body is hairy or fuzzy, and the first segment of the hind tarsus is large and flattened. Wasps have neither of these characteristics.

119

Order?

Thysanoptera.

120

Order?

Hymenoptera.

121

What 2 groups of insects are included in order Thysanura?

Silverfish and firebrats.

122

Order?

Odonata.

123

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Isoptera?

  • They live in large colonies
  • Workers and soldiers are whitish, no wings
  • King and queen are dark, with 2 pairs of similarly shaped wings (shed after mating)

124

Order?

Raphidioptera.

125

Order?

Trichoptera.

126

Order?

Dermaptera.

127

Order?

Coleoptera.

128

Order? Subgroup?

Hymenoptera; wasp (various families).

129

Order?

Hemiptera.

130

Order?

Mecoptera.

131

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Protura?

  • No eyes, antennae, cerci, or wings
  • Whitish in colour
  • Very small (1/10")

132

Where are insects of order Megaloptera typically found?

Their larvae are aquatic, and the (short-lived) adults are often found near water.

133

Order?

Plecoptera.

134

What group of insects is included in order Plecoptera?

Stoneflies.

135

What group of insects is included in order Isoptera?

Termites.

136

Order?

Mantodea.

137

Order?

Lepidoptera.

138

How can you tell dragonflies and damselflies apart?

Damselfly wings are narrow at the base and held pressed together up over the body. Dragonfly wings are broad at the base and held open and outstretched from the body. Dragonflies are usually larger and thicker-bodied than damselflies.

139

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Megaloptera?

  • Long, thread-like antennae
  • May have enlarged, crossed mandibles
  • Long, slender, membranous wings

140

Order?

Phasmida.

141

Order?

Diptera.

142

Order?

Blattodea.

143

Order?

Strepsiptera.

144

What group of insects is included in order Blattodea?

Cockroaches.

145

Order?

Dermaptera.

146

Order?

Siphonaptera.

147

What 2 characteristics can be used to identify order Lepidoptera?

  • Coiled sucking "tongue"
  • 4 wings, covered in scales

148

Order?

Dermaptera (earwigs).

149

Order?

Orthoptera.

150

Order?

Thysanura.

151

Order?

Lepidoptera.

152

Order?

Archaeognatha.

153

Order?

Hymenoptera.

154

What characteristic can be used to identify order Embiidina/Embioptera?

Silk glands in forelegs (to make silk tunnels to live in).

155

What group of insects is included in order Dermaptera?

Earwigs.

156

Which group of insects is included in order Archaeognatha?

Jumping bristletails.

157

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Archaeognatha?

  • Less than an inch long
  • 3 "tails" (cerci)
  • Can spring up by flexing the abdomen

158

Order?

Hemiptera.

159

Order?

Blattodea.

160

Order?

Blattodea.

161

Order?

Psocoptera.

162

What group of insects is included in order Raphidioptera?

Snakeflies (a.k.a. camelflies).

163

What group of insects is included in order Strepsiptera?

Twisted-wing parasites.

164

What 3 characteristics can be used to identify order Diptera?

  • Only 2 wings
  • Halteres: knob-like balancing structures (reduced from 1 pair of wings)
  • Sucking mouthparts (sponging in flies, piercing in mosquitos)

165

Order?

Psocoptera.

166

Order?

Neuroptera.

167

Order?

Thysanura.

168

Order? Suborder?

Hymenoptera; Symphyta (sawflies).

169

Order?

Trichoptera.

170

Order?

Raphidioptera.

171

What characteristic is used to identify order Dermaptera?

Pincers (cerci) at the posterior end of the abdomen.

172

How might you tell the difference between a caddisfly and a mayfly?

  • Caddisflies have silky hairs on their wings
  • Mayflies hold their wings straight up (sail-like); caddisflies hold theirs semi-closed over their backs (tent-like)
  • Adult caddisflies have mouthparts; adult mayflies do not
  • Mayflies have long caudal filaments ("tails"); caddisflies do not

173

What is the quickest way to tell the difference between an adult stonefly and an adult mayfly?

Mayflies hold their wings upright (sail-like) over their backs; stoneflies hold their forewings crossed (flat) over their backs, covering the hindwings.

174

Which order is Neuroptera most closely related to? 

Megaloptera.

175

Which order is Megaloptera most closely related to?

Neuroptera.

176

How can you tell members of Megaloptera and Neuroptera apart?

  • In Megaloptera, the base of the hindwings is broader than the base of the forewings; in Neuroptera, the bases of both pairs of wings are the same size
  • Megaloptera are always found near water; Neuroptera don't need to be near water
  • Neuropteran wings are transparent; megalopteran wings are opaque and coloured

177

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; Family Tipulidae (craneflies).

178

Which group of insects is family Tipulidae (order Diptera)?

Craneflies.

179

Which features can be used to identify family Tipulidae (order Diptera)?

  • Slender body
  • Long, fragile legs
  • Long halteres
  • Elongate, narrow, highly venated wings
  • Prominent rostrum

180

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats).

181

What features can be used to identify family Mycetophilidae (order Diptera)?

  • Mosquito-like
  • Long, strong apical spurs on tibiae
  • "Hunchback" thorax
  • Wings often conspicuously marked
  • Body usually dull yellow, brown, or black

182

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Cecidomyiidae (gall midges/gnats).

183

What features can be used to identify family Cecidomyiidae (order Diptera)?

  • Small (1-5 mm)
  • Long legs
  • Long antennae, highly segmented
  • Reduced wing venation

184

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Psychodidae (moth flies).

185

What features can be used to identify family Psychodidae (order Diptera)?

  • Small to minute
  • Very hairy
  • Moth-like (common name: moth flies)
  • Wing crossveins absent or restricted

186

Which groups of insects are in family Psychodidae (order Diptera)?

Moth flies and sand flies.

187

Which group of insects is in family Cecidomyiidae (order Diptera)?

Gall midges and gall gnats.

188

Which group of insects are in family Mycetophilidae?

Fungus gnats.

189

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Culicidae (mosquitos).

190

Which group of insects is in family Culicidae (order Diptera)?

Mosquitos.

191

What features can be used to identify family Culicidae (order Diptera)?

Mosquitos!

  • Proboscis much longer than head
  • Mouthparts enclosed by labial sheath
  • Body and legs covered in scales
  • 13 antennal flagellomeres

192

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Simuliidae (blackflies).

193

Which group of insects is in family Simuliidae (order Diptera)?

Blackflies.

194

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Aristate.

195

What does an aristate antenna look like?

Pouch-like, with a lateral bristle.

196

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Capitate.

197

What does a capitate antenna look like?

Abruptly clubbed at the end (as in butterflies).

198

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Clavate.

199

What does a clavate antenna look like?

Gradually clubbed at the end.

200

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Filiformis.

201

What does a filiformis antenna look like?

Thread-like.

202

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Geniculate.

203

What does a geniculate antenna look like?

Hinged or bent like an elbow (as in ants).

204

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Monoliform.

205

What does a monoliform antenna look like?

Beaded (as in termites).

206

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Pectinate.

207

What does a pectinate antenna look like?

Comb-like (as in glow worms).

208

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Plumose.

209

What does a plumose antenna look like?

Brush- or feather-like (as in moths).

210

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Serrate.

211

What does a serrate antenna look like?

Sawtoothed (serrated) at the ends.

212

What is the proper name for this type of antenna?

Setaceous.

213

What does a setaceous antenna look like?

Bristle-like (as in dragonflies).

214

What features can be used to identify family Simuliidae (order Diptera)?

Blackflies:

  • Small, stout body and antennae
  • Black or dark brown
  • Humpbacked appearance
  • Short legs
  • Broad wings

215

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Ceratopogonidae (biting midges).

216

Which group of insects is included in family Ceratopogonidae (order Diptera)?

Biting midges ("no-see-ums").

217

What features can be used to identify family Ceratopogonidae (order Diptera)?

Biting midges:

  • Very small (1-5 mm)
  • Strongly patterned wings, rounded at tips
  • Wing venation concentrated near joint
  • Proboscis about as long as the head

218

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Chironomidae (midges).

219

Which group of insects is in family Chironomidae?

Midges.

220

What features can be used to identify family Chironomidae (order Diptera)?

Midges:

  • 1-10 mm
  • Narrow wings
  • Glassy outer membrane

221

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Tabanidae (horseflies).

222

Which group of insects is in family Tabanidae (order Diptera)?

Horseflies/deerflies.

223

What features can be used to identify family Tabanidae (order Diptera)?

Horseflies/deerflies:

  • Medium to large (6-39 mm)
  • Large eyes (can be brightly patterned in males)
  • Spotted wing tips
  • Short antennae with elongated 3rd segment

224

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Asilidae (robber flies).

225

Which group of insects is in family Asilidae (order Diptera)?

Robber flies.

226

What features can be used to identify family Asilidae (order Diptera)?

Robber flies: 

  • Bee mimics
  • Large, separated compound eyes (top of head hollowed out between the eyes)
  • Raptorial legs
  • No mandible
  • Protruding, modified stabbing mouthparts

227

What 2 suborders is order Diptera traditionally divided into?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies - mosquitos, craneflies) and Brachycera (short-horned flies - houseflies, etc.).

228

What suborder of Diptera does family Tipulidae (craneflies) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

229

What suborder of Diptera does family Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats) belong to? 

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

230

What suborder of Diptera does family Cecidomyiidae (gall midges) belong to?

Nematocera (short-horned flies).

231

What suborder of Diptera does family Psychodidae (moth flies) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

232

What suborder of Diptera does family Culicidae (mosquitos) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

233

What suborder of Diptera does family Simuliidae (blackflies) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

234

What suborder of Diptera does family Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

235

What suborder of Diptera does family Chironomidae (midges) belong to?

Nematocera (thread-horned flies).

236

What suborder of Diptera does family Tabanidae (horseflies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

237

What suborder of Diptera does family Asilidae (robber flies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

238

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Bombyliidae (bee flies).

239

What group of insects belongs to family Bombyliidae (order Diptera?)

Bee flies.

240

What features can be used to identify family Bombyliidae (order Diptera)?

Bee flies:

  • Bright colours
  • Wings often patterned, banded, or spotted
  • Body often covered with delicate hairs

241

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies).

242

What suborder of Diptera does family Bombyliidae (bee flies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

243

What suborder of Diptera does family Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

244

What features can be used to identify family Dolichopodidae (order Diptera)?

Long-legged flies:

  • Long legs (dur)
  • Green or coppery; may be shiny/metallic in colour
  • Ornamented legs

245

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Hippoboscidae (louse flies).

246

Which group of insects is in family Hippoboscidae (order Diptera)?

Louse flies and sheep ked flies.

247

What features can be used to identify family Hippoboscidae (order Diptera)?

Louse flies/sheep ked flies:

  • Dorso-ventrally flattened
  • Dull brown, poorly defined body markings
  • Highly specialized antennae and mouthparts (ectoparasitic)

248

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Tachinidae (tachinids).

249

Which group of insects belongs to family Tachinidae (order Diptera)?

Tachinids.

250

What features can be used to identify family Tachinidae (order Diptera)?

Tachinids:

  • Extensively bristled
  • Prominent postscutellum (hindmost dorsal piece of the thorax)
  • Large calypters (small flaps above the halteres)

251

Which suborder of Diptera does family Tachinidae (tachinids) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

252

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Muscidae (houseflies and similar).

253

Which group of insects belongs to family Muscidae (order Diptera)?

Houseflies (and similar).

254

Which suborder of Diptera does family Muscidae (houseflies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

255

What features can be used to identify family Muscidae (order Diptera)?

Houseflies:

  • Aristate antennae, usually plumose for entire length

256

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Calliphoidae (blowflies).

257

Which group of insects belongs to family Calliphoidae (order Diptera)?

Blowflies.

258

What suborder of Diptera does family Calliphoidae (blowflies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

259

What features can be used to identify family Calliphoidae (order Diptera)?

Blowflies:

  • Often blue or green
  • Antennal arista often plumose at tip

260

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Sarcophagidae (flesh flies).

261

Which group of insects belongs to family Sarcophagidae (order Diptera)?

Flesh flies.

262

Which suborder of Diptera does family Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) belong to?

Brachycera (short-horned flies).

263

What features can be used to identify family Sarcophagidae (order Diptera)?

Flesh flies:

  • Similar to blowflies, but dark with grey thoracic stripes
  • Abdomen often has grey stripes too

264

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Oestridae (botflies).

265

Which group of insects belongs to family Oestridae (order Diptera)?

Botflies and warble flies.

266

What features can be used to identify family Oestridae (order Diptera)?

Botflies/warble flies:

  • Robust
  • Hairy, but without bristles
  • Small, vestigial, or absent mouthparts
  • Sometimes bee-like

267

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Tephritidae (fruit flies).

268

Which group of insects belongs to family Tephritidae (order Diptera)?

Fruit flies.

269

What features can be used to identify family Tephritidae (order Diptera)?

Fruit flies:

  • Wings usually distinctly patterned
  • Body can be brightly coloured

270

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Drosophilidae (small fruit flies).

271

Which group of insects is in family Drosophilidae (order Diptera)?

Small fruit flies.

272

What features can be used to identify family Drosophilidae (order Diptera)?

Small fruit flies:

  • Small
  • Yellowish or brownish in colour

273

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Conopidae (thick-headed flies).

274

Which group of insects belongs to family Conopidae (order Diptera)?

Thick-headed flies.

275

What features can be used to identify family Conopidae (order Diptera)?

Thick-headed flies:

  • Bare, elongate body
  • Usually black and yellow (wasp mimics/parasites)
  • Broad head
  • Long proboscis
  • Geniculate antennae

276

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Stratiomyidae (soldier flies).

277

Which group of insects belongs to family Stratiomyidae (order Diptera)?

Soldier flies.

278

What features can be used to identify family Stratiomyidae (order Diptera)?

Soldier flies:

  • Broad/flat or long/slender abdomen (depending on species)
  • Long antennae, with 3rd segment distinctly annulated (ring-like segments)
  • Blue thorax, often metallic-looking
  • Bee/wasp mimics

279

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Pipunculidae (big-headed flies).

280

Which group of insects belongs to family Pipunculidae (order Diptera)?

Big-headed flies.

281

What features can be used to identify family Pipunculidae (order Diptera)?

Big-headed flies:

  • Small (3-4 mm)
  • Compound eyes almost cover the entire head
  • Long, slender wings
  • Dark-bodied

282

Order? Family?

Order Diptera; family Syrphidae (hover flies).

283

Which group of insects belongs to family Syrphidae (order Diptera)?

Hover flies.

284

What features can be used to identify family Syrphidae (order Diptera)?

Hover flies:

  • Black body with yellow or orange markings on head, thorax, and abdomen (bee/wasp mimics)

285

Order? Family?

Order Hemiptera; family Coreidae (leaf-footed bugs).

286

Which group of insects belongs to family Coreidae (order Hemiptera)?

Leaf-footed bugs.

287

What features can be used to identify family Coreidae (order Hemiptera)?

Leaf-footed bugs:

  • Oval-shaped body
  • 4-segmented antennae
  • Metathoracic stink gland
  • Enlarged hind tibiae

288

289

What family do crane flies belong to?

Tipulidae (order Diptera).

290

What insects belong to family Tipulidae?

Crane flies.

291

Why are members of family Tipulidae considered phylogenetically primitive?

They have a fragile, slender body.

292

What is the general life cycle of family Tipulidae?

(Tipulidae = crane flies)

  • Adults mate as soon as possible after hatching from pupae (females already have mature eggs inside them)
  • Eggs laid in wet soil or algal mats, anchored by egg filaments
  • Free-living larvae feed and pupate

293

What family do fungus gnats belong to?

Mycetophilidae (order Diptera).

294

What insects belong to family Mycetophilidae?

Fungus gnats.

295

What do the larvae of family Mycetophilidae feed on?

Fungus and decaying plant matter (Mycetophilidae = fungus gnats).

296

What is the general life cycle of family Mycetophilidae?

(Mycetophilidae = fungus gnats)

  • Terrestrial larvae feed on fungi and form pupae in silky cocoons in the soil
  • Short-lived adults hatch and mate
  • Eggs laid in moist soil/decaying organic matter in several batches, spread between different locations

297

How do fungus gnats (family Mycetophilidae) act as pollinators and help spread mushroom spores?

They are poor fliers, but because they lay 200-300 eggs in multiple smaller batches in soil or decaying organic matter, they pick up and spread spores and pollen as they move between different locations for oviposition.

298

What family do gall midges and gall gnats belong to?

Cecidomyiidae (order Diptera).

299

What insects belong to family Cecidomyiidae?

Gall midges and gall gnats.

300

What family do sand flies and moth flies belong to?

Psychodidae (order Diptera).

301

What insects belong to family Psychodidae?

Sand flies and moth flies.

302

What group of insects transmits leishmaniasis? How?

Psychodidae (sand flies): blood-feeding females transmit the Leishmania parasite from infected to uninfected humans/animals.

303

What family do mosquitos belong to?

Culicidae (order Diptera).

304

What insects belong to family Culicidae?

Mosquitos.

305

What are the 3 major diseases vectored by family Culicidae (mosquitos)?

  • Malaria
  • Dengue fever
  • Viral encephalitis (e.g. West Nile virus)

306

What family do blackflies belong to?

Simuliidae (order Diptera).

307

What insects belong to family Simuliidae?

Blackflies.

308

What is Onchocerca?

A genus of parasitic roundworms vectored by blackflies (family Simuliidae) that includes the species that causes river blindness in humans.

309

What family do biting midges and no-see-ums belong to?

Ceratopogonidae (order Diptera).

310

What insects belong to family Ceratopogonidae?

Biting midges and no-see-ums.

311

What is Mansonella?

A genus of parasitic roundworms vectored by biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae) that causes dermatitis and skin lesions in humans.

312

What family do midges belong to?

Chironomidae (order Diptera).

313

What insects belong to family Chironomidae?

Midges.

314

What are bloodworms (Dipteran)?

Larvae of some midge species (family Chironomidae) that are bright red in colour due to a hemoglobin analog, an adaptation for near-anoxic environments.

315

What is the ecological significance of midges (family Chironomidae)?

  • Food web - larvae are important food for aquatic animals (fish, insects, etc.), and flying adults are food for fish and other fliers (bats, birds, insects, etc.)
  • Indicator organisms - presence/absence of extant or fossil species can indicate recent or past environmental changes

316

What family do horse flies and deer flies belong to?

Tabanidae (order Diptera).

317

What insects belong to family Tabanidae?

Horse flies and deer flies.

318

Define anautogenous.

Female insects requiring a blood meal after mating for complete egg development.

319

How do female Tabanidae (horse/deer flies) find blood meals?

They are attracted to large animals by movement, warmth, surface texture, and exhaled CO2.

320

What is Loa loa?

A parasitic roundworm vectored by deer flies (family Tabanidae) that causes disease in humans.

321

What is tularemia?

A North American bacterial disease vectored by mosquitos (family Culicidae) and deer flies (family Tabanidae) that causes ulcers and high fever in humans.

322

What family do robber flies belong to?

Asilidae (order Diptera).

323

What insects belong to family Asilidae?

Robber flies.

324

How do robber flies (family Asilidae) capture prey?

They capture insect prey mid-flight with their raptorial forelegs, then use modified piercing mouthparts to inject them with saliva containing paralyzing neurotoxins and proteolytic enzymes to liquefy internal tissues, which can be sucked out through the proboscis.

325

What family do bee flies belong to?

Bombyliidae (order Diptera).

326

What insects belong to family Bombyliidae?

Bee flies.

327

What family do long-legged flies belong to?

Dolichopodidae (order Diptera).

328

What insects belong to family Dolichopodidae?

Long-legged flies.

329

What is the benefit of hovering behaviour during feeding in bee flies (family Bombyliidae) and hoverflies (family Syrphidae)?

Both families mimic bees so are vulnerable to bee predators, but because they hover while feeding (instead of landing on plants, like bees), they can get away quickly.

330

What family do long-legged flies belong to?

Dolichopodidae (order Diptera).

331

What insects belong to family Dolichopodidae?

Long-legged flies.

332

What family do louse flies and sheep ked flies belong to?

Hippoboscidae (order Diptera).

333

What insects belong to family Hippoboscidae?

Louse flies and sheep ked flies.