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What does institutionalised aggression refer to?

Violence within an organisation


What are the two types of institutionalised aggression?

Instrumental aggression: to gain reward/outcome and to achieve goals

Hostile aggression: results from emotional states of feelings


Explain Irwin and Cressey's 1962 Importation model

A dispositional explanation for aggression in prisons
Inmates as 'bad apples'
Importing aggressive behaviours into prison to establish status and resources


Name some preexisting factors in inmates that cause affect levels of aggression in prison

Neglected upbringing
Substance abuse
Lack of education/opportunity
Gang membership


Name the three subcultures Irwin and Cressy say that preexisting factors lead to the development of inevitable conflict creating aggression?

Criminal: 'career criminals', repeat offenders, numerous sentences (highest level of aggression)
Convict: Raised in the system, possessing power&influence, a souce of info and resources among inmates
Conventional: innocents/one time offenders, reject other cultures


Using the importation model can you explain how institutional aggression may have occurred in Attica where an uprising killed 39 people?

54% inmates black origin, poor socio economic backgroud where gang membership common
Likely to be poorly educated, exposed to racial discrimination/drug abuse
Norms and values predisposed instutional aggression


What Delisi's supporting evience for the importation model show about inmates who suffered from childhood trauma,histories of drug abuse and violent/irritble behavior?

813 juvies studied for institutional aggression
More likely to engage in acts of violence, sexual misconduct and suicidal activity compared with to a control without such histories


How do these findings increase the validity of the importation model?

The show that prison aggression is linked to pre existing factors that predispose inmates to aggression


What are methodological issues with the research?

Drug abuse/trauma not manipulated, no control over EVs (genetic abnormalities)
Reduces validity as unsure of causation


What are the alternative explanations for institutional aggression?Dilulio

Ignores the roles of prision officials.
Poorly managed prisons = extreme violence from inmates
Administrative control model suggests: weak/indecisive leadership, informal rules, different staff and lack of education opportunies= extreme violence/rioting in prisons.


What is meant by Syke's Deprivation model?

Situational explanation of aggresision within prisions
Claiming characteristics of prison itself rather than population that accounts for voilence


What conditions do prisions have that inmates turn to aggression as a coping mechanism for? Violence may be against other inmates or staff.

Santised (harsh) conditions, stress and frustration


What does aggression become?

An adaptive solution to the problem of deprivation.


What does deprivation often involve?

Lack of access to goods and services i.e heat, noise and overcrowding (comfort)


Name some factors of inmates' experiance that contribute to instutional aggression

Deprivation of...
Autonomy: no freedom/independance
Liberty: no control of power & have few choices
Heterosexual relationships: single sex environment


What do the deprivation of these factors lead to?

Aggression as a coping mechanism


Explain how instutional agression may have occued in the Strangeways prison using the deprivation model

Inmates subjected to deprivation of exercise and sanitation causing frustration to lead to violence


How does evidence from Mccorkle and Light support the deprivation model?

Overcrowding, lack of privacy/meaningful activity = likelihood of inmates violence
Overcrowding in male prisons increasing= levels of violence increase


How does this evidence increase the validity of the model?

By showing that deprivation is linked to IA and could be the cause


These factors do not occur in collective acts of IA, what does this mean for the deprivation model?

That is does not explain all types of IA, only individual acts of violence


What does the contradictory evidence from the study of 256 males and females in Missippi prisons show?

Conjugal visits= no sexual depriviation
No reduced levels of aggresion
Reduces validity of deprivation of heterosexual relationships linking to IA


What happened when the deprivation conditions at HMP Woodhill were improved and what does this mean?

Levels of violences significantly decreased
Unreliable explanation as it is linked to IA in some prisions but not others