Flashcards in Media Influences Deck (14):
What is a media influence?
Changes in behaviour attributed to the exposure of TV and computer games
There has been a long history of concern of negative media influence, what does this mean?
Whether it increases aggressive behavior
What did a Lab experiment conducted by Bartholow and Anderson show
More violent the game= more violence shown
Ppts playing mortal kombat or PGA Gold for ten mins
Taylor Competetive Reaction Time Test (blasts of white noise as punishment)
Ppts of violent condition higher levels of noise compared to non violent (mean of 5.97 decibles to 4.60)
Shows link and increases validity
Przybylski illustrates video violence may not be the cause and suggests that?
Aggresion is associated with failure and frustration caused by playing i.e lack of mastery of difficult moves = agressive behaviour in non violent games
Reduces val suggesting EVs can explain findings
How does Delsi's evidence demonstrate a positive correlation between negative meida influence and aggressive behavior?
Study involving 227 juvie offenders of serious aggressive behaviours interviewed on aggression and violent video game playing
Found that offenders aggressive behaviour positively correlated with how often violent video games played/enjoyed
Why does this increase the validity of negative media influence on aggression?
A link is demonstrated
What are the methodological flaws of the correlational evidence and measurement of aggression and how does it reduce the validity of negative media influence?
No manipulation of exposure to media = causation is difficult
Usually only have small to medium effect sizes, aggression toward another person not measured
Suggests doesn't influence interpersonal aggression and other factors may be the cause
What other causes of aggression linked to the effect of media influences by Ferguson et al show and why does this reduce the validity?
influence of violent media and aggression virtually disappears when other risk factor variables such as trait aggression, family violence and other mental health are considered.
suggests that it does not influence aggression in isolation, but is measly a small contributory factor.
What is meant by desensitisation? (Khrae skin conductance of habitual users)
Diminished emotional response
Under normal conditions, physiological arousal prevents aggressive behaviour
Repeated viewing of media violence leads to reduction of arousal
More likely to accept aggression as socially acceptable as negative attitudes weaken and less empathy is felt
What is meant by disinihibition? (Berkowitz & Alioto fake shocks during justified vs non justified film violence)
Disregard for social norms/conventions
Most people are socialised to have a negative view on violent behaviour and are inhibited to use it
Media can undermine social sanctions that usually inhibit the behaviour, normalising the aggression
New social norm is formed, acceptance of aggresion if deemed justifiable
What is meant by cognitive priming? (Grietemeyer, derogatory lyrics about women, hot chilli sauce)
Unconscious memory effect
People exposed to violence have thoughts & ideas that become parts of memory pathways
Viewing aggressive behaviour creates a schema stored in memory (later automatically triggered when we encounter cues)
Priming an individual to violence
What are the practical applications of investigating media influences and disinhibition? (helping the recruitment of the american army)
American army recruitment strategy of habitual violent media users
Individuals who are likely to behave aggressively automatically (norm)
Supporting the value of dishinhition
What does the contradictory research show about the explanation of aggression and why does it reduce the validity of desensitisation as an explanation?
There are alternative explanations for desensitisation
No links between habitual media viewing, lower arousal and aggressive behaviour
Psychodynamic more valid, catharsis
Aggressive media influence may prevent real life aggression