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Flashcards in Integumentary 1 Deck (23)
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What structures does the integumentary system contain?

Skin, hair, nails, glands, adipose tissue, muscles and nerves


What structures of the integumentary system contain epithelium tissue

epidermis, blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair


What structures of the integumentary system contain connective tissue

dermis, hypodermis, blood vessels


What structures of the integumentary system contain muscle tissue

blood vessels, arrector pili muscles


What structures of the integumentary system contain nervous tissue

sensory receptors, blood vessels


What the the three layers of skin and what are they made of?

Epidermis (stratified cuboidal keratinised epithelium)
Dermis (loose connective tissue -papillary layer and dense irregular connective tissue - reticular layer
Hypodermis (adipose and dense irregular connective tissue)


What is the purpose of keratinisation?

To produce lamellar bodies as tonofilamenta and keratohylaine granules combine.


What are the 5 layers of epidermis?

Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin)
Stratum corneum


What are the layers of dermis?

Papillary layer (loose CT)
Reticular layer (dense irregular CT, the reticular layer is the largest layer in the dermis).


What non-keratinocytes are in epidermis and in which layers?

Merkel cells found in stratum basale.
Melanocytes found in stratum basale
Langerhans cells found everywhere but mostly in stratum spinosum.


Why are stratum lucidum and corneum acidophilic

They are filled with protein and are dead so have no nuclei


What are keratinocytes?

Keratinocytes are responsible for the visible layers of the skin. They contain tonofilaments and keratohyaline granules (when they combine keratin is formed). Keratinocytes also secrete glycolipids (lamller bodies) Keratinocytes produce in the basale layer from mitosis. As they progress through the layers, keratinocytes are removed by abrasion


What is keratinisation?

It is the process as keratinocytes progress through the epidermis. It goes from cuboidal, irregular spiny, flattened with granules and then squamous. Lamellar bodies are also produced. It is done by cell divison.


Describe the stratum basale

Contain merkel cells and melanocytes. Contains many cell junctions (hemidesomones and desmosomes). Production of keratinocytes also occurs here. Melanin granules are also found here


Describe the stratum spinosum

The largest layer of the epidermis. Langerhans cells are identified here. The intercellular bridges are held by demosomes. Tonofilaments (found in keratinocytes) are found here


Describe the stratum granulosum

As the tonofilments and keratohyaline granules combine, glycolipids (lamellar bodies) are produced.


Describe the stratum lucidum and corenum

Found only in thick skin (lucidum). dead skin filled w/ keratin. Surface keratin is lost through abrasion


Describe the lifespan of keratinocytes

The lifespan is shorter the high friction areas (25-30 days) and is longer in ares w/ low friction (40-50 days). Diseases (ie psorasis) can influence this.


Describe merkle cells

Merkle cells are found in the basale layer. They are associated with light touch


Describe melanocytes

Produce melanin. located in the stratum basale.


What are the three types of melanin?

Eumelanin (black/brown)
pheomelanin (pink/skin)
Neuromelanin (in neurons)


Describe langerhans cells

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells and are associated w/ the innate immune system.


Describe the difference between thick and thin skin

Thick skin is hairless whilst thin skin contains hair however some thin skin such as the border of the lips nipples penis and clitoris do not contain hair.
Both skins have sweat glands (apocrine sweat glands = thin).
Thick skin has thicker dead cell layers (lucidum +corneum) and folds to better attach the epidermis to dermis. This is done by dermal pipillae.