Integumentary 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Integumentary 2 Deck (25)
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What are the two dermis layers and what are they made of?

Papillary layer (loose CT)
Reticular layer (dense irregular CT)


What is the function of the dermis?

To provide strength (collagen fibres), support and flexibility (elastic fibres) to the epidermis


What structures are in the dermis layer?

Sebaceous glands, sweat glands
Hair + follicles, nerve fibres and sensory receptors, blood vessels


Describe the hypodermis layer

it is not part of the skin, but part of the integumentary system. Is it composed of dense irregular CT and adipose tissue


What are the 4 sensory innervations?

Free nerve endings,
Merkle Cells
Meissner's Corpsucle
Pacinian corpsucle


Describe free nerve endings

Free nerve endings are located in the epidermis and dermis. It is responsible for pain and temperature


Describe Merkle cells

Merkle cells are located in the stratum basale. They are responsible for soft touch


Describe meissner's corpuscles

They are located in the papillary dermis. Responsible for touch


Describe pacinian corpuscle's

Located in the reticular dermis. Responsible for vibration and pressure


What are the 4 appendages for skin?

1. Hair + follicle
2. Sebaceous gland
3. Nails
4. Sweat glands (apocrine and eecrine)


What makes up the pilosebaceous apparatus?

Hair (and follicle) and sebaceous glands


What is the hair shaft made of?

1. Cuticle
2. Cortex
3. Medulla


What else does hair contain?

Hair bulb, arrector pili muscle, sebaceous gland. Melanocytes


Describe the 'hardness' of keratin

The level of sulfur determines the hardness of keratin. Nails have high lives of sulfur and are hard in comparison to hair (soft).


What are the 3 skin glands?

1. Sebaceous gland
2. Eecrine Sweat gland
3. Apocrine sweat gland


Describe the sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands secrete sebrum (viscous) and may make the area infected (acne). They open up the skin via a hair follicle. They are holocrine glands. It is controlled by ANS and sex hormones. It also keeps the skin soft


Describe eccrine sweat glands

Open to the skin via a duct. Merocrine secretion. Controlled by the ANS. The secretory portion contain dark (proteinaceous), clear (watery) and myoepithelial (contractile) cells. While the duct portion is stratified cuboidal epithelium. THERMOREGULATORY and EMOTIONAL SWEAT


Describe apocrine sweat glands

Apocrine sweat glands relate to thin skin. They open to the skin via a hair follicle and are controlled by the ANS and sex hormones. only EMOTIONAL sweat (body odour)


What are the primary functions of the integumentary system?

Blood reservoir, vitamin D synthesis, absorption and excretion, protection, sensory innervations, body temp regulation


Gives examples of protection from external environment

Acidic pH, cell junctions, glycolipids (lamellar bodies), sebrum, melanin, langerhans cells (immune system)


Give examples of sensory innervations

free nerve endings, merkle cells, meissner's corpuscles and pacinian corpuscles


Give examples of body temperature regulation

sweating, hair and 'goose bumps'


Give examples of blood reservoir

blood can be taken from skin to other places


Give examples of secretion and absorption

Drugs and soluble vitamins (D, E, A and K) can be absorbed and amounts of water, CO2 is secreted through sweat


Describe vitamin D synthesis

UV activates pre-cursors that are modified (by enzymes) in the liver to form calcitriol. Calcitriol is the most active form of V D. Hence, calcitroil enables uptake of calcium. Insufficient calcium may result in nerve and muscle activity.