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Flashcards in Intelligence Deck (21):

Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence

Gf-Gc theory (fluid and crystallized intelligence)


Three-stratum theory (Carroll, 1993)

general (g)
broad (Gf, Gc, etc.)
Narrow (multiple abilities i.e. FSIQ (Stratum I), Indices (Stratum II), and Subtests (Stratum III)


Crystallized intelligence (Gc)

includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures


Fluid intelligence (Gf)

includes the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures


Quantitative reasoning (Gg)

is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols


Reading and writing ability (Grw)

basic reading and writing skills


Short-term memory (Gsm)

is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds


Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)

): is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking


Visual processing (Gv)

is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations


Auditory processing (Ga)

is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions


Processing speed (Gs)

is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention


IQ scores peak at around age ______, and slowly decline until _____, and then followed by a sharp decline



meaning of IQ score

-When reporting IQ always provide the test it came from.
-Intelligence should be regarded as a descriptive rather than explanatory concept; IQ is an expression of an individual's ability level at a given point in time in relation to age norms.
-Intelligence is not a single unitary ability, rather a composite of several functions: a combination of abilities required for survival and advancement within a particular culture, what's important varies with time and space.
-Typical intelligence test largely measures verbal abilities, which predominate in school learning. So most intelligence tests can be regarded as means of scholastic aptitude or academic intelligence. IQ reflects prior educational achievement and predicts subsequent educational performance.
-Motivational, emotional, and attitudinal variables are important determinants of achievement in all areas; to base decisions on tests alone is a misuse of tests.



 A standardized assessment that provides language-free measure of cognitive ability; uses abstract problem-solving tasks to measure reasoning and intelligence. Can be administered without spoken directions, reading, or writing. Instructions given through pantomime; subject responds by pointing. Suitable for persons with communication disabilities, neurological impairments, mental retardation, hearing loss, or learning disabilities, and non-English speaking persons (includes verbal directions in English, Spanish, French, German, simplified Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean and Tagalog).


Guiding principle of TONI-4

to measure overall cognitive ability without allowing poor language or motor skills or lack of cultural familiarity to mask intelligence or to confound its assessment


TONI-4 uses

Ages: 6 – 89:11
Estimating aptitude and general intellectual functioning
Identifying individuals believed to have intellectual impairments
Ruling out intellectual impairment in individuals whose test performance may be confounded by concurrent language or motor impairments
Verifying the validity of referrals for treatment, therapy, or special services
Formulating hypotheses for intervention or further evaluation
Conducting research



Ages: 6:0 – 16:11
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is an individually administered clinical instrument for assessing the cognitive skills of children age 6 years 0 months through 16 years 11 months. It is comprised of 21 subtests, each measuring various facets of intelligence


Indices of WISC-V

-Verbal Comprehension
-Visual Spatial
-Fluid Reasoning
-Working Memory
-Processing Speec


WISC-V special studies groups

-intellectually gifted
-mild to moderate ID
-borderline IQ
-specific learning disorders, ADHD, disruptive behavior, TBI, English language learners, ASD


Pros of WAIS-IV

-Reduced item bias compared to WAIS-III
-Least reliable subtests removed since prior edition
-Excellent psychometric properties
-Yields clear precise data re cognitive functioning
-Can monitor pt’s behavior surrounding the test admin and the items to generate hypotheses for personality
-both vocab and information subtests reported to be resistant to sx of depression and anxiety (Lezak, 1995) therefore shows evidence of premorbid functioning


Cons of WAIS-IV

-Although this edition is an improvement, Weschler scales do not adequately measure extreme highs and lows re intelligence, low ceiling, high floor, poor for measuring extreme giftedness or MR
-Focuses heavily on school learning rather than other dimensions
-Norms may not be applicable for ethnic minorities/people of low SES
-Some argue that practice effects limit test to every 2 year administration
-Since this is a new version, validity info still limited compared to the III