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GCSE Biology B1 > Interdependence and adaptation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Interdependence and adaptation Deck (9):

For what factors might an organism in a given habitat compete?

Light, water, space and nutrients from the soil in plants
Food, mates and territory in animals


What is an adaptation?

A feature that enables an organism (including microorganisms) to survive in conditions in which they normally live


What is an extremophile and give examples of their possible adaptations?

An organism that lives in an extreme environment
High levels of salt, high/low temperatures, high pressures


How might animals be adapted to survive in a climate like that of the arctic?

Small surface area : volume (i.e. large animals with small ears, etc.)
Thick insulating coat (polar bear)
Lots of body fat (seal, whale)
White fur (with black skin) for camouflage, and to insulate (polar bear)


How might plants be adapted to survive in a dry environment, such as a desert?

Small surface area : volume (large, flat leaves)
Water-storage tissues (cacti can store huge amounts of water)
Extensive root systems (increase surface area and reach of roots, more water can be absorbed)


Give three ways in which both animals and plants could be adapted to cope with specific features of their environment

Thorns (rose, to keep off birds and small animals)
Poisons (frogs, mushrooms; to prevent being eaten)
Warning colours (wasps, frogs; to deter predators)


What affects the distribution of living organisms?

Changes in their environment, such as introduction/decline of a predator and/or a competitor, or average temperature/rainfall


How can living organisms be used as indicators of pollution?

Lichen can be used to indicate the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere, particularly of sulphur dioxide
Invertebrates can be used to indicate water pollution and dissolved oxygen concentration


How can environmental changes be measured using non-living indicators?

Oxygen levels, temperature and rainfall