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Flashcards in Internal Med - LE 2 Old Reviewer Deck (96):
1

Visual acuity is expressed as two (2) numbers in which the first number represents:

C. distance of the patient from the chart

2

1Legal blindness is defined by the IRS as test corrected visual acuity of:

A. 20/200

3

True about Myopia:

D. distant objects require a diverging lens in front of the eyes

4

Causes of transient or sudden visual loss include the ff. except:

D. Macular degeneration – chronic type of visual loss (insidious)

5

The most common primary tumor of the eye is:

D. Melanoma

6

Ptosis (drooping of the eyelid) can be caused by the following except:

A. Myasthenia gravis

B.Old age

C. Sympathetic nerve damage

D. Hyperthyroidism;

D. Hyperthyroidism

Explanation:


A. Myasthenia gravis - autoimmune neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles

B.Old age

C. Sympathetic nerve damage - Horner's syndrome

7

Small irregular pupils that do not react to light but react to near effort is termed:

C. Argyll – Robertson pupil

8

Slightly raised yellowish circumscribed plaques in the skin along the nasal portions:

a. Chalazion

b. Episcleritis

c. Pinguecula

d. Sty or Hordeolum

e. Xanthalesma

Xanthalesma


Explanation:

Chalazion -Chronic inflammatory lesion involving the meibomian gland

Episcleritis - Non-infectious inflammation of the superficial tissue of the sclera

Pinguecula - Yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva

Sty or Hordeolum - Painful tender red infection around the hair follicle of the eye lashes

9

Non-infectious inflammation of the superficial tissue of the sclera

a. Chalazion

b. Episcleritis

c. Pinguecula

d. Sty or Hordeolum

e. Xanthalesma

B. Episcleritis


Explanation:

Chalazion -Chronic inflammatory lesion involving the meibomian gland

Pinguecula - Yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva

Sty or Hordeolum - Painful tender red infection around the hair follicle of the eye lashes

Xanthalesma - Slightly raised yellowish circumscribed plaques in the skin along the nasal portions

10

Chronic inflammatory lesion involving the meibomian gland

a. Chalazion

b. Episcleritis

c. Pinguecula

d. Sty or Hordeolum

e. Xanthalesma

a. Chalazion

Explanation:

Episcleritis - Non-infectious inflammation of the superficial tissue of the sclera

Pinguecula - Yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva

Sty or Hordeolum - Painful tender red infection around the hair follicle of the eye lashes

Xanthalesma - Slightly raised yellowish circumscribed plaques in the skin along the nasal portions

11

Painful tender red infection around the hair follicle of the eye lashes

a. Chalazion

b. Episcleritis

c. Pinguecula

d. Sty or Hordeolum

e. Xanthalesma

d. Sty or Hordeolum

Explanation:

Chalazion -Chronic inflammatory lesion involving the meibomian gland

Episcleritis - Non-infectious inflammation of the superficial tissue of the sclera

Pinguecula - Yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva

Xanthalesma - Slightly raised yellowish circumscribed plaques in the skin along the nasal portions

12

Yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva

a. Chalazion

b. Episcleritis

c. Pinguecula

d. Sty or Hordeolum

e. Xanthalesma

c. Pinguecula

Explanation:

Chalazion -Chronic inflammatory lesion involving the meibomian gland

Episcleritis - Non-infectious inflammation of the superficial tissue of the sclera

Sty or Hordeolum - Painful tender red infection around the hair follicle of the eye lashes

Xanthalesma - Slightly raised yellowish circumscribed plaques in the skin along the nasal portions

13

Grayish –white opacity at the edge of the cornea that may accompany normal aging:

a. Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

b. Cataract

c. Corneal infection

d. Corneal scar

e. Pinguecula

Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

14

Superficial grayish – white opacity in the cornea secondary to an old injury or to an inflammation

a. Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

b. Cataract

c. Corneal infection

d. Corneal scar

e. Pinguecula

d. Corneal scar

15

Opacity of the lens seen through the pupil

a. Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

b. Cataract

c. Corneal infection

d. Corneal scar

e. Pinguecula

b. Cataract

16

Presents with ciliary injection and dilatation of deeper blood vessels

a. Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

b. Cataract

c. Corneal infection

d. Corneal scar

e. Pinguecula

c. Corneal infection

17

Triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva

a. Arcus Senilis or corneal arcus

b. Cataract

c. Corneal infection

d. Corneal scar

e. Pinguecula

e. Pinguecula

18

Lesion with the optic nerve:

Blind eye

19

Lesion on the optic chiasm:

Bitemporal hemianopsia

20

Lesion in the optic tract:

Homonymous hemianopsia

21

Partial lesion to the optic radiation:

homonymous upper quadrantic defect

22

Occlusion of the branch of a central retinal artery:

horizontal [altitudinal] defect

23

Innervated by the abducens nerve:

E. Cranial nerve VI; LR6 = lateral rectus

24

Innervates the upward and downward mov’t of the right eye:

inferior rectus

25

Mediates the upward and outward mov’t of the right eye:

superior rectus

26

Innervated by the trochlear nerve:

superior oblique; SO4

27

Mediates the upward and inward mov’t of the right eye:

inferior oblique

28

To straighten and visualize the ear canal, you should pull the auricle:

upward and backward

29

In using the otoscope, it is recommended that the available speculum size used is the:

largest

30

In trying to distinguish the type of hearing loss, you make use a tuning fork with the following frequency:

512-1024 Hz

31

Distortion of sounds that impair theunderstanding of words are often present as the upper tones of words and are disproportionately lost is consistent with:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

sensorineural loss

32

A noisy env’t may seem to improve hearing:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

conductive loss

33

Patient’s own voice tends to be loud, has trouble hearing his/her own voice:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

sensorineural loss

34

The onset is most often in childhood and young adulthood:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

conductive loss

35

Hearing problem is not visible during the examination of the ear canal and ear drum:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

sensorineural loss

36

1In performing the Weber test , sound lateralizes to the good ear:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

sensorineural loss

37

In performing the Weber test , sound lateralizes to the impaired ear:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

conductive loss

38

In performing the Rinne’s test , bone conduction is longer than or equal to Air conduction:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

conductive loss

39

In Rinne’s test , air conduction lasts longer than bone conduction:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

sensorineural loss

40

Causes include otitis media, otosclerosis and immobilized eardrum:

a. conductive loss
b. sensorineural loss

conductive loss

41

Recurrent and painful vesicular eruption of the lip and surrounding skin:

herpes simplex

42

Firm and button-like lesion that ulcerates and may become crusted:

[syphilitic] chancre

43

Diffused non-pitting, tense swelling of the dermis and subcutaneous tx of the lip:

angioedema

44

….softening of the angles of the mouth :

angular cheilitis

45

A lesion may appear as scaly plaque or as an ulcer or a nodular lesion:

carcinoma of the lip

46

Normal sebaceous glands that appear as small yellowish spots in the buccal mucosa:

Fordyce Spots

47

Small white specks that resemble grains of salt on a red background:

Koplik’s spots [measles]

48

A midline bony growth in the hard palate:

torus palatinus

49

Flat or raised purplish lesions seen among patients with AIDS:

Kaposis sarcoma

50

Grayish exudate or pseudomembrane that is present in the uvula, pharynx and tongue:

Diptheria

51

Decreased facial mobility, blunt expression resulting in a mask-like expression increased blinking and a characteristic stare:

Parkinson’s dse

52

Round moon face with red cheeks, excessive hair growth:

cushing’s syndrome

53

Dull and puffy face particularly pronounced around the eyes, hair and eyebrows, coarse and thin and dry:

myxedema [hypothyroidism]

54

Face is edematous often pale swelling usually occurs first around the eyes in the morning:

nephrotic syndrome

55

Head is elongated with bony prominence of the forehead, nose and lower jaw features of your generally….:

acromegaly

56

Most common cause of headache that is describe as recurring and associated with nausea vomiting and other neurologic dysfunctions:

migraine

57

An example of a male dominated cause of headache is:

coital headache

58

The most common symptom accompanying severe migraine is:

nausea [up to 70%]

59

In this type of migraine syndrome no focal neurologic disturbance precedes the recurrent headache:

common migraine

60

A dramatic episode of this type of migraine begins with total blindness accompanied by mixtures of vertigo ataxia, arthria and perioral paresthesia:

basilar migraine

61

Carotid artery involvement usually in this type of migraine, that is commonly precipitated by dental trauma:

facial migraine

62

In this type of migraine the most common premonitory symptoms are visual arising from the dysfunction of occipital lobe neurons:

classic migraine

63

This episodic type of vascular headache is characterized by one to three short lived attacks of periorbital pain per day over a period of 4-8 wks followed by…. :

cluster headache

64

Direction of associated nystagmus can either be unidirectional or bidirectional:

central vertigo

65

Visual fixation inhibits nystagmus and vertigo:

peripheral vertigo

66

Severity of vertigo is often mild:

central vertigo

67

Tinnitus and/or deafness is usually absent in:

central vertigo

68

Vertical or purely torsional nystagmus is never present in:

peripheral vertigo

[in central vertigo daw kasi pwede rotational pwedeng vertical ang hilo. Eh ang peri almost always rotational daw.]

69

Duration of symptoms maybe chronic:

central vertigo

70

Common causes include neuronitis, trauma and toxins:

peripheral vertigo

71

Purely horizontal nystagmus w/o torsional component is uncommon:

peripheral vertigo

72

Most commonly involve in sinusitis:

maxillary

73

Acute sinusitis:

less than 4 wks

74

CT scan for chronic sinusitis is the radiographic

study of choice

75

Strep pneumonia in

acute otitis media

76

Most common identifiable cause in acute pharyngitis:

rhinovirus

77

Swimming in contaminated water commonly caused

by Pseudomonas

78

Chief symptom of chronic suppurative otitis media:

painless oral discharge [candida]

79

The distinguishing feature between anterior tonsilar abscess:

earache or otalgia

80

Retropharyngeal abscess can only be demonstrated by:

palpation

81

The most common presenting symptom among patients with nasal disorder?:

obstruction

82

Allergic rhinitis:

bilateral
unilateral

bilateral

83

Foreign body and nasopharyngeal carcinoma:

bilateral
unilateral

unilateral

84

Unilateral watery nasal discharge should alert you regarding the possibility

of CSF leak

85

The most common cause of epistaxis localized is:

idiopathic [80%]

86

Hallucinatory swelling disorder is usually associated with the ff except:

CNS tumors-usually have anosmia

87

Nasal regurgitation of fluid and food maybe due to which condition:

[palate problems] paralyzed soft palate

88

Sinuses in the human body that are not evaluable during PE:

sphenoid and ethmoid

89

A negative transillumination test suggests:

both thickened epithelium or sinus end or sinus congestion

90

Involvement of the frontal sinus would result in proptosis in what direction:

inferior and lateral

91

Involvement of the ethmoid sinus would result in proptosis what direction:

lateral

92

Involvement of the maxillary sinus would result in proptosis in what direction:

superior

93

Large non tender and non-suppurating nodes from tertiary syphilitic granuloma :

gumma

94

Enlargement of a single node in the left supraclavicular group signify malignancy in the upper aerodigestive tract:

Virchow’s node

95

Suppurative lymph node enlargement forming sinuses with bright red hue due to:

Actinomycoses

96

Multiple large non tender nodes caused by bovine strains of tubercle bacilli:

Scrofula [TB of the lymph node]