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Flashcards in Interwar Period Deck (96):

~Intewar period

● Peace prevailed in Europe during the 1920s but was fragile and incomplete
● Political cioletnce and civil war rocked Germany, Soviet Russia, and Eastern Europe until 1922, and even afterward, it was exhaustion, rather than true amity, athat preserved peace ont he continent


~League of Nations

● Resettled refugees and carried out famine relief, but with few powers of enforcement, it soon proved a woefully inadequate peacekeeper


~Great Depression

● SPread outward form teh US starting in 1930s


~Social welfare systems

● Many democracies found some relief by putting into palce unemploymetn relief and various other elemetns in the social welfare system



● USSR/Soviet Union
● Germany
● Italy


~February Revolution

● Liberal provisional Government attempted to repair the dismal economy and build democracy
● The tsarist regime collapsed due to repeated WWI disasters, the poltiical incompetence of Nicholas II and dire food shortages
● Did not satisfy the desire of the vast majority of Russians for economic stability, land reform, and an end to the war at any cost



● The most radical of Russia''s communists
● Led by Vladimir Lenin and his second-in-command Leon Trotsky


~October Revolution

● Communist regime took power in Russia in the fall of 1917
● Struggled for survival between 1917 and 1921, pulling out of WWI


~Russian Civil War

● Communists defeated their anti-communist enemies (the Whites)
● Resulted in teh death of millions from disease, starvation, and persecution, and the emigration of hundreds of thousands more


~Vladimir Lenin

● After asserting control, created a one-party dictatorshipa nd a secret police and tried to modernize the country along Marxist lines
● Comrpomised with New Economic Policy (NEP)


~New Economic Policy (NEP)

● A more gradual approach to socialist developmetn that allowed for limited private trade
● Lasted until 1928, although Lenin died in 1924


~Joseph Stalin

● Gained control of hte Soviet govenrment in 1928 after a struggle against Trotsky
● Became one of the most oppressive dictators of all time
● He returned to the revolutionary policy of overnight modernization with his Five-Year Plans and collectivization of agricultrue


~Five-Year plans

● Complete centralization of the economy to bring about rapid industrialization
● Combined the social and economic trauma of a state-sponsored industrial revolution with ruthless police brtality


~Collectivization of agriculture

● THe forced transfer of peasants form villages to state-run farms, both to control them more tightly and to contiscate their grain more efficiently, in order to pay for the Five-Year Plans


~Great Famine (1932-1933)

● Millions os peasants who opposed collectivization were imprisoned or executed
● Four to six million died in teh Great Famine caused by Stalin's grain confiscations in southern Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan



● A series of mass arrests and show trials that Stalin used the secret police to carry out
● Executed approx. a million people and exiling millions more to labor camps called gulags


~Cult of personality (Stalin)

● Stalin used propaganda to indoctrinate his subjects and glorified himself by means of an extravagent cult of personality
● HIs state-directed form of modernization brought the coutnry far more torement than benefit


~Benito Mussolini

● Leader of the Fascist Party
● King turned to him after the constitutional monarchy was undermined by economic downturn and political chaos
● The upper and middle classes, fearing social breakdown and communist revolution, sought a strong leader to restore stability



● Mussolini's invention
● Right-wing radicalism
● Anti-communist but also anti-capitalist and anti-democratic and characterized by militaristic nationalism (and sometimes ethnic bigotry)


~Modernization of Italy

● Mussolini modernized Italy with new highways, literacy campaigns, and the industrial development of Italy's more backward regions
● The Depression udnercut his modernizing efforts at home


~Cult of personality (Mussolini)

● He imposed censorship and used propaganda to create a lavish cult of personality
● Suppressed trade unions and political parties
● His international reputation was damaged during the 1930s


~Weimar Republic

● Germany was governed by the democratic Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933
● Faced hyperinflation and political unrest from the left (commuist uprising) and the right (assassinations and coup attempts by Nazi Party) in early 1920s
●Managed to restore order betwen 1924 and 1929



● Which caused several years of nightmarish poverty


~Great Depression (Germany)

● In 1930, it ended the temporary calm under Weimar Republic, causing mass unemploymetn
● Boosted hte popularity of Germany's most extremist movements: the Communists and the Nazi party, led by Adolf Hitler, orginally from Austria, but a fierce pan-German patriot


~Adolf Hiter

● Despised communism and democracy in favor of militaristic nationalism
● Embraced racial hatred of many groups, but especially a virulent form of anti-Semitism
● Expressed in his infamous memoir from the mid-1920s
● Rekindling their resentment of the Treaty of Versailles and anti-Semitic theories


~Paul von Hindenburg

● In January 1933, the Germany's president who had little love for the Nazis but feared hte communists even more appointed Hitler chancellor of Germany
● Both Nazies and communists are gaining in popularity


~Enabling Act

● Suspended the Weimar constitution and gave Hitler the power to rule by decree
● Outlawed all political parties, banned trade unions, and turned the press and mass media into instruments of Nazi propaganda relying on a cult of personality


~Night of the long knives

● Hitler violently purged remainging rivals within the Nazi Party in this after he assumed the presidency when hindenburg suddnly died


~Concentration camps

● To control dissidents and opponents, the Nazis built concentration camps like Dachau and created a secret police, the Gestapo


~State capitalism

● Similar to Mussolini's
● Ended German unemployment with a giant program of public works and highway building, coupled with mass military conscription and renewed arms production--both of which required the renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles
● Hitler's highly belligerent foreign policy was a key reason for hte steady erosion of European and global peace during the 1930s


~Aryan Myth

● Nazis acted on their obsession with racial purity
● Believe in misuigded notiont hat Germans and other northern Europeans were the truest descendants of the earliest Indo-Europeans
● Targest several races as "undesirable" including Slavs, Africans, and Roma (Gypsies) and the Jews


~Anti-Semitic policies

● Althought the Nazis eventually resorted to genocide, their anti-Semitic policies before the war emphasized official discrimination and physical harassmnet
● Jewish writings an networks were banned or burned
● Jewish businesses were boycotted
● Jews were forced out of professions like law, medicine, civil service, and university teacher


~Nuremberg Laws of 1935

● Depreived Jews of their civil rights and forbad intermarriage between them and non-Jews



● Night of broken glass
● Sporadic violence, including the 1938 pogram ramped up during the late 1930s, as the regime tried to pressure Jews into elaving hte country


~Young Turks

● Led by Enver Pasha
● Replaced Abdul Hamid II with a figurehead sultan ad restored hte consittuion fo 1876
● Resumed its path toward reform in 1908-1909
● Could not save hte empire, especially once the Ottomans entered WWI and shared in the Central Powers' defeat


~Mustafa Kemal

● A heroic WWI commander who now repelled the Greeks after the end of hte War
● Formed a new ogvernment, negotiated a more favorable treaty with the Allies
● Proclaimed the Turkish Republic after hte last Ottooman sultan vacated the throne in 1923 and himself president and taking the name Ataturk



● Governed as a secularizing modernizer from 1923 to 1938
● Promoting industrialzation, Western dress, Western education, and the use of the Roman alphabet for writeen Turkish
● Church and state were separated, with a European law code replacing Islamic Sharia
● Wrote a constiution and kept up a democratic pretense
● Tolerated little opposition and began a long tradition of authoriatrian rule in Turkey


~Women under Ataturk

● No longer required to wear the veil
● Received the right to vote in 1934
● Encouraged to get educations and jobs


~Qajar dynasty

● Ruled Persia since 1794, had been divided into British and Russian spheres of influence during the 1800s



● Drawn by its oil reserves, the British increased their presence in Persia after WWI, causing a nationalist backlash
● in 1921, an officer named Reza Khan muttinie against the Qajar and expelled the British, gaining control of the entire country by 1925


~Reza Shah Pahlavi

● Reza Khan took this name
● Established a new royal dynasty and became an authoritarian Westernizer like Ataturk
● Although he was less inclined than Ataturk to put up a show of democracy or to clash as hard with the Muslim clergy, the new shah industrialized Iran, boosted the education and did away witht eh veil for women


~Egypt and North Africa

● Remained in British, French, and Italian hands, although nationalist sentiment there was growing
● Ottomans retained the Arabian Peninsula, but the other Arbas lands once under their rulership were not placed into the mandate system and administered by France and Britian under the League of Nations' supervision
● This arrangement angered hte Arbas, who had believed during WWI that the Allies would grant htem complete freedom as a reward for thier anti-Ottoman revolt


~Balfour Declration of 1917

● Further angered Arabs
● 90% Arab before substantial Jewish immigration in Palestine and British pledged support for a Jewish national home there


~Ibn Saud

● Saudi Arabia achieved full independnece in 1932 under him
● Spent the 1920s driving the Ottomans out of the Arabian Peninsula and then uniting its many tribes


~Saudi Arabia

● An authoritarian monarchy, the Saudi state remained more traditionally Islamic and modernized little
● Except to industirlize its huge oil reserves, whose discovery in 1928 made it instantly wealthy and strategically vital


~Chinese Revolution of 1911-1912

● Swept away the QIng regime
● Leading figure was Sun Yat-sen, who spent the 1890s and early 1900s promoting Western-style modernization and constitutional rule based on three "people's principles"


~People's principles

● Nationalism (opposition to Manchu rule and Western imperialism)
● Democracy (including universal suffrage for women as well as men)
● Livelihood (A semi-socialist, but not Marxist, concern for people's welfare)


~Nationalist Party/Kuomintang (KMT)

● Led by Sun Tat-sen
● Established the new Chinese Republic


~Yuan Shikai

● The authoritarian general sezed power in 1912 until 1916 and then passed to other right-wing officers until 1928


~Opposition to military regime (China)

● Opposed to this military regime were warlords and bandits, who established control over vast stretches of China, as well asintellectuals and students, whose Western-oriented progressivism clashed with the regime's attempt to reive traditional Confucian values
● Thousands of students gathered in Tiananmen Square on May 4, 1919 to protest he regime's willingness to allow Japan to annex Shantung Province and democratic reform


~Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

● Founded in 1921 by radicals at Beijing University
● In the mid-1920s, both CCP and KMT cooperated to combat unruly warlords and to unseat hte military government


~Chiang Kai-shek

● Took the leadership of KMT in 1925
● A Western-educated officer who leaned farther to the right than Sun had
● Took Beijing in 1928 and founded a Kuomintang regime that professed allegiance to Sun's prnciples and attempted a certain degree of modernization but soon grew corrupt, inefficient and authoritarian
● Governed China until 1949, but faced two deadly threats (CCP and Japan)


~KMT-CCP alliance

● By early 1927, it had won control of all China south of hte Yangtze River
● In Aprikl, Chiang turned agains thte communists, murdering thousands of them in Shanghai and driving the rest far to the north


~Mao Tse-tung/Mao Zedong

● Leader of the CCP who led the party to its new northern base of Yenan during the arduous Long March of 1934-1935


~Japanese expansion

● Begain in 1931 and worsened after 1937 and never ceased until th end of WWII


~Democratizing potential in Japan

● Japan began in the interwar period with democratizing potential
● Up through the late 1920s, the powers of hte Diet increased, freedom of the press expanded, and a 1925 bill of rights granted universal male suffrage and other civil liberties


~State-directed industrialization

● Continued with a small number of powerful corporations (zaibatsu) benefiting from governemnt favoritism
● Concentrate wealth in the hands of a tiny oligarchy of influential industrialists, it kept trade unions weak and did little to improve working conditions
● Even before the Depression, strikes and riots were common, and social stress was building to a dangerous level


~Left-wing extremism and conservative backlash in Japan

● The Great Depression caused Japanese exports to plummet more than 50%
● Gave rise to left-wing extremism
● Two prime ministers were assassinated, one by leftists in 1930, the other by radical rightists in 1932


~Hideki Tojo

● Head of Japan's army
● Prime ministership in 1941
● Authoritarian


~Militaristic nationalism

● Skyrocketed in Japan
● Bostered by the ideology of State Shinto


~State Shinto

● Propagandistically perverted Japan's indigenous faith to foster a sense of racial superiority and unquestioning loyalty tot he state
● Anti-Western feelings sharpened, and the slogan "Asia for hte Asians" called for hte expulsion of colonizing powers
● Seized Manchuria from China and withdrew from the League of Nations in 1931


~Rape of Nanjing

● japan resumed their war against China in 1937, committing dreadful atrocities like the Rape of Nanjing that December
● Japanese troops butchered 200,000 to 300,000 noncombatants, including thousnads of women who were first suxually assaulted


~Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere

● Japan named its sphere of influence
● Before WWII, the Japanese would spread this campaign of xenophobic imperialism throughout much of East and Southeast Asia


~National liberation movements (South and Southeast Asia)

● Inceasingly influential in South and Southeast Asia
● Anti-colonial agitation escalated in Indonesia, Burma, Indochina (especially among the Veitnamese)
● Typically led by Western-educated elites and middle-class intellectuals and studnets
● Tneded to involve uneasy alliances between liberal modernizers and radical communists


~Indian National Congress

● Supported Britain so loyally duringg WWI, they hoped for greater autonomy, perhaps even dominion status
● Began staging mass protests, one of which at Amritsar in 1919


~Amritsar 1919

● REsulted in the killing or wounding of more than 1400 unarmed demonstrators by British troops


~Government of India Act

● In 1921, British passed this
● A major concession that allowed five million Indians to vote and created a new parliamnet with 2/3 Indian membership
● THe Congress demanded more


~Mohandas Gandhi

● A leading figure in the Congress since 1915
● Known to his followers as Mahatma or great soul
● Imprisoned several times by the British, he combined political activism and Hindu religious principle to devise the policy of nonviolent resistance



● Nonviolent resistance
● In 1930, after the British iposed a punitively high tax on salt, rather than protest violentl, Gandhi led 5000 people on a 200-mile march to the seashore, where they began to make salt illegally by drying out seawater
● When the British arrived, Gandhi allowed himself to be arrested peacefully


~Jawaharlal Nehru

● A secular modernizer
● Political leader in the Congress
● Together with Gandhi, they pressed for full independence


~Constitution in 1935 (India)

● British granted a consituttion that promised eventual self-rule


~Quit India campaign

● Congress response to the constitution in 1937
● Britain realized that it would have to accelerate its plans for withdrawal


~Muhammad Ali Jinnah

● Ended many years of cooperation witht eh Congress and founded hte All-India Muslim League in 1930
● Aimed not just for independnec from Britain but also for the creation of a separate Islamic state
● Failure of the Muslim League and the Congress to resolve their differences peacefully led to great bloodshed nad laid the foundation for decades of ongoing Indo-Pakistani rivalry


~Economic imperialism (latin America)

● The United Fruit Company
● US sphere of influence


~Cuban-American Treaty of 1903

● Authorized the US to intervene in Cuba's foreign policy and gave it the option to lease hte Guantanamo naval base



● The Americans also occupied Haiti in 1915 to protect US sugar companies



● Established a long-term military presence in Panama after opening hte Panama Canal in 1914



● Invaded northern Mexico in 1916, ahotuhgt this was a response to repeated raids on US soil by the rebel leader Pancho Villa


~Good Neighbor Policy (1935)

● Only attept to reduce US influence in Latin America
● Franklin Roosevelt proposed the withdrawal of troops from Haiti


~Authoritarian rule in Latin America

● Mexico
● brazil
● Argentina


~Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)

● Followed a pattern not unlike China's
● The liberal dmocrat Francisco Madero overthrew Porfirio Diaz, a general who had ruled since 1876, modernizing the country but growing corrupt and abusive over time
● Ended with the death of Carranza


~Francisco Madero

● Was not destined to govern for long
● He was pressued by rural radicals like Franciso Pancho Villa nad Emiliano Zapata from the left who initially supported him and led uprigins against him when he did not deliver agrarian reform as rapidly as he had promised
● From the right, Madero faced opposition from conservative military officers, who staged a coup in 1913 and executed him


~Venustiano Carranza

● Madero's liberal ally
● Took back power in 1914 and enacted the COnstiuttion of 1917
● Radical insurrections on one side and military disloyalty on the other side
● Although he defeated Zapata in 1919, he was removed in 1920 by the general Alvaro Obregon and soon killed


~Constitution of 1917 (Mexico)

● Guaranteed universal suffrage (including for women)
● Separation of church and state
● Right to strike


~Alvaro Obregon

● Fundamentally restored order in Mexico in early 1930s
● Eliminated Villa in 1923 and instituated a number of land,, labor and educational reforms
● Stepped down in 1924, only to be assassinated in 1928


~National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

● Obregon's successors founded the party, which renamed itself the Institutional revolutionary party (PRI) in 1946 and ruled until the late 1980s
● Claimed to govern in the revolution's name but created a durable oligarchy in which the party chose a president every six years and arranged a democratic election that guaranteed victory to its candidate


~Lazaro Cardenas

● Presidnet of Mexico from 1934-1940
● Conditions for lower classes imporved
● Carried out a popular land reform
● Stood up to the uS with his nationalization of hte oil industry


~Land reform (Mexico)

● Tranferring 40 million acres from the upper classes to the peasantry


~Nationalization of the oil industry

● Because Cardenas compensated US investors for their losses, FDR abided by his Good Neighbor Policy and did not intervene, allowed Cardenas to form PEMEX, Mexico'a state-run oil enterprise



● Descended deep into dictatorship in 1930, when an oligarchy dominated by wealthy landowners gave way tot he despotic presidency of hte cattlemand Getulio Vargas


~Getulio Vargas

● Ruled from the far right until 1945
● Freed Brazil from its economic overdependence on coffee exports and turned it into Latin America's most industrialized nation
● He censored the press and authorized his secret police to torture prisoners



● Military ousted radical president Hipolito Yrigoyen in 1930 who had spent the 1920s antagonizing the army and elite classes witho pro-union and pro-working policies
● This infamous decade of dictatorship lasted until 1943, when another series of coups paved hte way for the 1946 rise of another storngman, the charismatic general Juan Peron


~Why did democracy not flourish in interwar Europe?

● In 1919, 23 governments there could be considered democratic
●By 1939, half of them had become dictatorships of varying degrees of severity, especially Italy, which slipped into fascism as early as 1922 and Germany, driven to Nazism in 1933 by the Depression
● Even well-established democracies like Britain and France experienced political weakness and economic sluggishness


~How did the Great Depression affect political systems?

● British elections returned weak-willed coalition governemnts
● French governemtn lurched from left to right and back again in ludicrously frequent elections
● Made them difficult to cope with the growing threat of Nazi Germany


~Why did many Jews stay in Germany after being discriminated against?

● Place like Britain, Canada, and the US refused them entry
● European jews did not anticipate how much worse Nazi rule would become


~Why did Latin American economies modernize unevenly during these years?

● Remained advantageous for economic elietes and foreign investors to continue plantation monoculture and the extraction of a handful of raw mateirals rather than industrializing or diversifying
● The Depression devastated Latin American economies by wiping out international demand for nearly half their exports