Social Structures, 1900 to Present Flashcards Preview

AP World History > Social Structures, 1900 to Present > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Structures, 1900 to Present Deck (62)
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● Brazil, Russia, India and China
● Whose soceioeconomic development does not yet match that of the West but which have been rapidly modernizing and gaining global clout


~White-collar class

● Status depended on education, skills, and earned wealth


~Middle class

● Large and stable class



● The growing availability and affordability of transportational and energy infrastructures, along with the mobility that came with mass transit and hte automobile


~Social welfare systems

● Either as a way to cope with the economic pain of the interwar years and the Great Depression (British dole and FDR new Deal)
● Or because of the new possibilites opened up by post-WWII prosperity
● In capitalist societies, they required a willingness to palce a safety net under hte workings of the free market or even to blend capitalism with some elements of socialism as in Scandinavia's third way


~Postindustrial economies

● Emphasize consumerism and service industries rather than manufacturing
● Place a premium on computerization and cutting-edge technologies



● Associated with many innovations and opportunities
● Also caused stress as well as opportunity, with many jobs being made obsolete by new machines or being lost to cheaper labor overseas


~Economic gap

● Even the economic boom of the 1980s and 1990s was accompanied by a growing divide between the wealthiest members of Western societies and the less well-off, with increased burdens falling on a noticeably shrinking middle class
● Caused by the financial collapse of 2007 has only worsened these trends


~Communist Europe

● A communist elite/new class enjoyed enormous privileges
● Social welfare system provided what cynics referred to as equality of poverty or at best equality of adquacy
● Industrial manufacturing was strong, but the production of consumer goods was weak, and high-tech innovation outside the military sphere was nearly nonexistent


~New class

● A communist elite comprising about 10% of a given society
● Denounced by the Yugoslav intellectual Milovan Djilas as a corrupt and self-important new class


~Developing world

● Social devisions between the elite classes and the rest of the society tended to remain very wide, with a very smal lmiddle class separating the very wealthy from very poor masses
● Social and economic modernization were generally directed from above


~North-south splite

● Economic prosperity, the availability of food and clean water, and access to cutting-edge technology, medical care, and social stability tend to be concentrated int he developed world, with many parts of hte developing world lagging behind and still impoverished


~Social activism

● Part of modern social life since the days of the American and French revolutions
● Leading role in national liberation movements worldwide and in the struggle for racial equality in places as diverse as South Africa (anti-apartheid movement) and the US (civil rights movement versus Jim Crow laws)
● Clashed with existing social and political orders
● Advanced the cause of women's liberation and gay rights


~1968 Protests

● Rocked city streets and college campuses from Paris and Prague to Mexico City and New York
● Gave voice to those who opposed nuclear weapons, Cold War conflicts like Vietnam, and damage to the environment


~Tiananmen Square protests

● In China in 1989
● Unseccessful protest that defied dictatorial regimes


~Solidarity strikes and people's power movements

● Against Poland's communist governemnt during the 1980s and the related people's power movemnets that borught down communism in Eastern Europe more widely in 1988 and 1989


Segregationist schemes

● Existed in many places to restrict the rights of unfavored ethnic groups or to keep them apart from those groups favored by the authorities
● In no colony did the imperial power allow natives to mix freely with whites


~Pale of Settlement

● Prior to the revolutions of 1917, Jews in Russia were not allowed to live outside the Pale of Settlement, a special zone in western Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, without a permit


~Jim Crow laws

● In the US, it enforced by lunching and other forms of legal and semi-legal violence
● Perpetuated anti-black segregation in a variety of ways, especially in the south, until protests and demonstrations by civil rights activists like Martin Luther King, Jr. helped to bring about passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1968


~Indigenous American

● Struggled against secondary status and racial prejudice, whether in the US and Canada or throughout Latin America
● Being forced onto reservations, many people were taken from their families as children, either to be adopted by white families or to be educated in residential schools, where abuse was rampant and native traditions discouraged



● One of hte most deeply entrenched forms of segregation was the South African system
● Instituted in 1948 by white Afrikaners and rigidly enforced until the 1990s
● Earn South Africa decades of world disapproval and provoked determined opposition on the part of groups like the African National Congress


~African National Congress

● Led most famously by Nelson Mandela
● jailed for his activism between 1964 and 1990



● Throughout Eastern Europe
● It continued to be treated as distinctly second-class



● Remained as much a global reality in this era as during the 1800s and so have xenophobia and anti-immigration sentiment
● Continued to be motivated by work opportunities (including migrant and illegal labor), but warfare has done its share to prompt it as well, creating refugees and displaced persons by the millions
● Intensified after WWII by refugees



● Countries that dismantled their empires allowed former colonial subjects to live and work in the metropole or home country
● Migration was encouraged after
● Indians, Pakistanis and Caribbean islanders traveled in large numbers to Britain, Indonesians migrated to the Netherlands, and Algerians and Moroccans came to France
● Migration of Filipinos and Puerto Ricans to the US can be considered part of this phenomenon as well


~Guest workers

● Admission of them to Western Europe along with increase in legal and illegal immigraion of Latin Americans to the US and Canada
● There were 15 million of these by the 1980s, many of them Turks living in Germany


~Anti-immigration sentiments

● Involve varying degrees of prejudice and discrimination
● Involve race riots or the formation of skinhead movements or nativist political parties (such as those founded by Jean-Marie Le Pen in France and Jorg Haider in Austria) which call for an end to immigration


~Gender equality

● Progress came most quickly in the Western world, although other regions moved forward as well, if slowly and partially


~Women's suffrage movements

● In Europe and North America that had arisen during the late 1800s continued their agitation during the early 1900s
● Successes during and after WWI when large numbers of women took jobs as farmhands and factory workers, especially in munitions plants
● Served as nurses and uniformed auxiliaries, and their contributions to their countries' war efforts earned them much respect


~Women's right to vote

● In many Western nations between 1917 and 1920, with Spain, France, and Italy standing out at noteworthy exceptions
● Due to raising status in WWI