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Lawrence (1918-1929) (5)

  1. The Grand Narratives explaining the rise of Labour (modernisation, secularisation, nationalisation) are flawed. Labour did not rise from class, but from communitarian ethos.
  2. TP = Great War - extension of the state through rent controls, postwar unemployment support etc.
  3. Labour stood as statist against the rolling back of Tories
  4. 5 million workers demobilised due to war
  5. Tories saw the working class as working classes - groups in working class. i.e. appealed to unions which were undercut by foreign imports (WC tariff support)


Tanner (1918-1929) (2)

  1. Prewar politics - localised, variable Postwar politics - nationwide, coordinated
  2. Labour didn’t rise because of the realisation of class consciousness, but because it became the only expression of anti-Toryism.


Clarke/McKibbin (1918-1929)

Liberal strength was undermined by the rise of Labour.


Matthew et al. (1918-1929)

  1. If class sentiments had developed, the electoral evidence doesn’t support it - it did not reflect solid labour support for Labour!
  2. Benefitted from Liberal disarray in Torquay, Bournemouth and Surrey.


Jarvis (1918-1929) (6)

  1. Tories were fearful of full democratisation:
    • Fear of youth - generally more socialist in nature
    • Fear of women - tendency towards egalitarianism
    • Fear of labour - unions for labour naturally-
  2. Tories became 'consumerist' about votes - appeal to individual/interest group rather than masses (Conservative Agents Journal).
  3. Deflationary policies still meant appeal to £500 a year man continued
  4. Selbourne - argues franchise makes householder conservative
  5. Tories saw the 4th Reform Act on McKibbinite 'Franchise Factor' lines
  6. 'Prolier Than Thou' - promotion of working class Tory credentials - candidate in 1924 - Durham miner "spent my whole life down in the pits"


Ramsden (1918-1929) (2)

  1. Redistribution, the retention of plural voting and the survival of the university constituencies under the 1918 RotPA all served to offset the unpredictability of the new mass electorate.
  2. Loss of Ireland electorally good for Tories (Liberal stronghold)


McKibbin (1918-1929) (2)

  1. Tories attempted to construct new discourse on conventional wisdom against Labour.
  2. 'Franchise Factor' - fear that the mass vote would result in the Tory downfall.


Williamson (1918-1929)

  1. Tories passive beneficiary of war.
  2. Baldwin tapped and stimulated forces of a 'morally conservative and religious nation'.


Bonar Law (1918-1929) (2)

  • National Union conference, 1917 - ‘our party on the old lines will never have a future in the life of this country'
  • The challenges of democracy and socialism posed three critical changes to the party:
    1. Effectiveness as an electoral organisation
    2. Internal organisation
    3. relationship to alternative agencies of political mobilisation


Constantine (1918-1929)

  • WWI led to greater amounts of interaction across class boundaries, as well as involving a nationally cohesive memory of war.


Wilson (1918-1929) (5)

  1. Continuity and discontinuity - tariffs, free trade, Ireland, the application of social conscience to living conditions did not disappear, but were marginalised/ reordered in importance during war
  2. Massive state interventionism exposed the issues with laissez faire government.
  3.  LG supporting DORA and the destruction of Germany seen as illiberal.
  4. Prewar liberals dependent on Irish vote
  5. Labour inclusion in war government seen as death of progressive alliance as labour no longer subservient to Liberals.


Green (1918-1929) (2)

  1. Steel Maitland (Politician) - believed social reform a necessity of an epoch of mass politics.
  2. Supportive of full employment (important - Tory), saw unions as barrier to efficiency


Pugh (1918-1929) (4)

  1. Not entirely LG's fault for Liberal split, Asquith as belligerent.
  2. Suspension of imports from Germany allowed domestic industries to grow in UK - supporting protectionism
  3. Tories minimum 260 seats postwar
  4. Unions boomed - 4 to 6 mil by 1918 (8 mil by 1920)


How many seats did Labour win in 1910 and 1918? (1918-1929)

  1. 1910- 42
  2. 1918 - 57 (fielded 332 more candidates however)
  3. 1919 Municipal Elections - 550 from 48 - more significant gain.


how many votes did the Liberals win in 1923 election? (1918-1929)

29.7% (1% less than Labour)


Why were Tories more effective than Labour candidates in elections? (1918-1929)

  • Tories had demonstrable local credentials (Among a series of other reasons!)


What institutions did the conservatives set up to appeal to marginalised groups? (1918-1929) (4)

  • Women's Institution
  • Women's Unionist Movement
  • Young Britons
  • Junior Imperial League


Tory Mags? (1918-1929) (2)

  • Man in the Street
  • Home and Politics


MacKenzie (1918-1929)

  • Deference - Emphasised the continuing vitality of popular imperialism and monarchism during the inter-war period


Close (1918-1929)

  • Older Tories believed democracy had been “a blunder, or, at least, a dangerous misfortune"


Who did the guilty men focus on?

  • Cato's Guilty Men focused on Baldwin, as deceiving the nation


What did Orwell call Baldwin?

a hole in the air


What had happened to Baldwin by 1945?

  • Erased from the party public memory


How did Chamberlain describe Baldwin's ascension?

An accident of an accident


What was Baldwin's motion behind protectionism?

  • Industrial protection was reduction of unemployment which remained stubbornly persistent


What was the Conservatives' mistake in 1923?

  • Underestimating the hold of free trade upon popular thought


In Birmingham, 1925, how did Baldwin resist unions?

  • ’Truce of God’ and ‘peace in our time’ for ‘a better and happier condition” of the country. Invoked notions of sacrifice, selflessness and Christian ideals.


What was the huge political risk Baldwin took in 1925?

  • Took huge political risk in 1925 by offering temp. government subsidy whilst the Samuel report adjudicated on the validity of coal miner agitations for wage increase.


What hopes did the 1926 General strike dash?

  • General strike and prolonged coal stoppage temporarily disrupted Baldwin's hopes of social reconciliation and co-operation in industrial regeneration.


What caused Baldwin to collapse?

  • 1927 Trades Disputes Bill due to GS + collapse of Locarno