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Jackson (Northern Ireland) (2) on O'Neill


1. O’Neillism was an economic modernisation agenda which was designed to affirm unionist supremacy in Ireland, failed- investment unevenly caused issues and contributed to civil rights movement

2. Not the challenge of the IRA that threatened to destabilise the Unionism, but rather the economic condition of the state

3. The economic planning of the 1960s, designed to copper fasten Unionist rule, instead contributed to its demise. Unionists became the victim of their own success - job creation  an impressive annual industrial growth rate of 5.7% was recorded in the 1960s. But the location of this investment, disparities amongst the beneficiaries and the simultaneous loosening of sectarian frontiers created resentments and fed into social disorder.


Hennessey (Northern Ireland) (1) - Sunningdale

1. The conditions for a settlement of the Northern Ireland conflict did not exist in the period 1972-76. Beginning with the Sunningdale Agreement it might be argued that this was one of the greatest diplomatic coups of any Irish government since independence in 1921.


Prince (Northern Ireland) (1) on protesting

1. Focuses on the wave of New Left thought behind the belief in a social revolution to dispel the issues faced by the Irish State.

In particular, homes in on the actions of students to go for non-violent, peaceful protest with the intent on finding out how the actions of SNCC relate to the protest actions of students in Ireland. Invariably, these actions are responsible for the introduction of police violence in Ireland, leading to greater British military imposition in Ireland, leading to IRA actions.


Shapiro (Northern Ireland) (1)

1. Irish Troubles legacy - high walls in Ireland dividing the ethnic populations  “physically divided by 30-foot high walls"


Bew (Northern Ireland) (2) British and IRA

1. British interest to stay in Ireland is, claims Danny Morrison, to “only now be explained in terms of strategic interest, of NATO and can properly be defined as ‘political imperialism'"

2. "The degree to which the provisionals were now setting the political agenda was increasingly evident… the clear declaration that they were working for direct rule… made it all the more difficult for the British ruling class to consider this option - outside of conditions of near catastrophe in Northern Ireland"


Gillian and Tonge (Northern Ireland) (2) British Govt

1. Since the outbreak of conflict in 1969 the British government has introduced a range of community relations initiatives aimed at containing, if not ending, the violence.

2. It is fair to conclude that up until the mid-1980s most of these measures were of a fairly disparate and largely incoherent nature. 


Ginty (Northern Ireland) (1) British Govt

1. Highlights difficulty of talking about Ireland in Westminster and timidity of the press in highlighting discrimination in NI


Dummingham (Northern Ireland) (2) Economics

1. Before the troubles, Northern Ireland had the worst economy in Western Europe - failed to provide work for a vast number of people, and encouraged institutionalised economic and social inequality  2. The Troubles "retarded Northern Ireland's participation in the world economy"


Harris (Northern Ireland)(2)

1. Familiarity certainly led to consent. Distancing and disengagement had caused Anglo-Irish elite to oscillate only between different level of mutual hostility, miscomprehension and suspicion, their adverse on Northern Irish community relations cannot be overestimated.

2. The region is still struggling to overcome this poisoned inheritance. EEC/EU membership though not the antidote, has redressed some of the problems left in its wake. Regular contact between the Anglo-Irish elite, particularly on the fringes of European council summits, increased mutual awareness, thereby eroding mutual distrust


English (Northern Ireland) (1) IRA

1. 1982 - Raymond McCartney - former IRA hunger striker - “the armed struggle in fact needed a sound political machine heard to use itself as another weapon to help rid us of foreign imperialism north and south of our falsely divided country"


Edwards (Northern Ireland) (2) Irish Govt 

1. While the winding down of military dimension effectively took the gun out of Irish politics, it did not bring an end to sectarianism or the underlying cause of the Troubles.

2. British government ignorance of the Troubles brewing on the streets of Belfast and Derry/Londonderry was matched only by ambivalence toward the difficulties facing the Stormont government.


Ginty (Northern Ireland) (1) Irish Govt

1. Realisation of paramilitary for the need for political action in the 1980s, low level political feud not enough for fast action - civil society more engaged, outlines significance of Anglo-Irish Agreement 

2. A triangular low intensity conflict developed in 1970s between British state, Republican paramilitaries and loyalist paramilitaries

3. Violence persistent, but of a relatively low level in comparison with other ethnic wars. The conflict in Mindanao in the Philippines claimed 120,000 lives. Approximately 50000 had been killed in Sri Lanka since 1983, only 2.6 million live - not significant enough to worry about


Bloomfield (Northern Ireland) (1) AIA

1. Bloomfield is highly critical of the AIA - With the Irish government as a substitute for the SDLP at the negotiation tables - Unionist parties had legitimate right to be concerned - a unilateral process, by which the deep intervention into Northern Irish affairs by the Irish government, but with no reciprocal role in relation to the Republic, extended to members elected by constituencies in the 26 counties of the Republic formal consultative rights not available to members elected in the 6 counties of Northern Ireland.


Guelke (Northern Ireland) (4) Extraction

Issues with extraction

 1. Sovereignty issues

2. Appearance on a global stage

3. Transitional period to peace would require resources physically not possible to manage

4. Potential likelihood for the PIRA or another Republican army to continue assault against UK


McKittrick (Northern Ireland) (4) British Govt

1. Absence of Westminster supervision, the establishment  of what was in effect a permanent unionist government and the unionist party’s domination of local government represented the top strata of Unionist power in NI. 

2. Special Powers Act - sweeping legislation which allowed arrests without warrant, internment without trial, unlimited search powers and bans on meetings and publications, as well as providing far-reaching catch-all clauses

3. The Canary Wharf bomb delivered the message that the gun and the bomb had not yet been removed from Irish politics

4. The IRA itself had had a major rethink since the abject failure of its 1950s campaign, and in the process had swung sharply to the left with prominent Marxists taking control. It moved away from the idea of using violence as its only tactic and became a left-wing pressure group agitating on issues such as housing, particularly in the south.


When and what was the Sunningdale Agreement?

1973 - Establishment of power sharing arrangement


When and what was the Hillsborough Agreement?

The Anglo-Irish Agreement, 1985 - guaranteeing right of RoI intervention in NI politics


When and what was the Downing Street Joint Declaration?

1993 - declaration affirmed both the right of the people of Ireland to self-determination, and that Northern Ireland would be transferred to the Republic of Ireland from the United Kingdom only if a majority of its population was in favour of such a move.


When and what was the framework document?

1995 - Codification of North-South relations


When and what was the Good Friday Agreement?

Belfast, 1998. Est. devolved multi-party system with defined relations between Ireland and England, Ireland and RoI and RoI and England. Also accounted for civil rights, decommissioning of weapons, justice and policing


When and what was the Patten report?

1999 - inquire into policing in Northern Ireland


When and what was the Parades commission?

2002 - Parades Commission is a quasi-judicial non-departmental public body responsible for placing restrictions on any parades in Northern Ireland it deems contentious or offensive.


What was the Special Powers Act?

Special Powers Act - sweeping legislation which allowed arrests without warrant, internment without trial, unlimited search powers and bans on meetings and publications, as well as providing far-reaching catch-all clauses


Was Wilson hostile to Stormont?

Yes, instinctively anti-unionist.


What was Wilson's reaction to discussions in Ireland?

opening the meeting with a reminder that Stormont was subordinate to Westminster and following up with a direct threat to cut off some of Northern Ireland’s money


What happened in 1974?

Re-election of Wilson, who was mainly hostile to the Sunningdale agreement, allowed to fall through


Major's reaction to the death of James Bradwell, 1994

Warrant Officer James Bradwell was 43, with a wife and with children, Mr Adams. He joined the army, prepared to lose his life defending the British nation. Soldiers do. But he was murdered in cold blood in the United Kingdom. I sent him there, Mr Adams, so save me any crocodile tears. Don’t tell me this has nothing to do with you. I don’t believe you, Mr Adams, I don’t believe you.



New generation of Catholics, less deferential, pushed for rights - unionist majorities reacted harshly Paisley cited violence to push Catholics into ghettos British government did not want to intervene


Who ruled Ireland under British direct rule?

Secretary of Ireland


Who was not involved in the Good Friday Agreement?