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Flashcards in intro Deck (21)
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1

proper gas exchange requires the integration of many organs

1. lungs, chest wall, respiratory muscles to provide adequate gas movement
2. heart and pulmonary circulation for adequate blood flow
3. central and peripheral receptors to control and match ventilation and perfusion

2

obstructive airway disease can

impede gas flow into and of the alveoli

3

restrictive disease can alter

ventilation-perfusion matching or create barriers to gas exchange

4

pulmonary vascular disease can impair

gas transfer and lead to right heart failure

5

The pleural space is created by the

apposition of the inner lining of the chest wall, the parietal pleura, and the outer lining of the lung, the visceral pleura.

6

Conducting airways

- trachea
- bronchi
- bronchioles

7

Gas exchange units

-respiratory bronchioles
- alveolar ducts
- alveoli

8

On average there are ____ generations of airways in humans (from trachea to the last respiratory bronchiole).

23

9

The first ____ are the conducting airways because they form a conduit for gas transfer to and from the respiratory exchange units of the lung.

16

10

The walls are made up of three principal structures:

1. the inner mucosal surface
2. the smooth muscle layer
3. the outer connective tissue layer

11

the inner mucosal surface is made up of:

epithelial cells, cilia, and goblet cells

12

the loss of cartilage in the outer tissue layer represents the transition from _____

bronchi to bronchioles.

13

disease such as bronchitis and bronchiectasis refer to

airways with cartilage whereas bronchiolitis affects the bronchioles or non-cartilagenous airways.

14

the conducting airway is defined as

anatomic deadspace-- des not participate in gas exchange

15

The gas-exchange region
begins _____ and includes the_____

(the acinus)

distal to the terminal bronchiole

respiratory bronchiole, the alveolar ducts, and the alveoli.

16

Type I cells

1. account for 95% of the alveolar surface area
2. fuse with the capillary endothelium to create a sufficiently thin membrane for adequate gas transfer.

17

Type II cells have
two primary functions:

1) to repair or replace injured Type I pneumocytes
2) to secrete surfactant, a substance which lowers alveolar surface tension.

18

in the lung the pulmonary arteries (and arterioles) run with the:

bronchi (and bronchioles)

19

Gas-exchange occurs at the:

capillary-alveolar interface

20

The pulmonary veins run:

they don't run with the airways but are more peripheral.

21

Lymphatics run

near the pulmonary arteries and veins to help cope with extravascular lung water.