Flashcards in intro Deck (21)
proper gas exchange requires the integration of many organs
1. lungs, chest wall, respiratory muscles to provide adequate gas movement
2. heart and pulmonary circulation for adequate blood flow
3. central and peripheral receptors to control and match ventilation and perfusion
obstructive airway disease can
impede gas flow into and of the alveoli
restrictive disease can alter
ventilation-perfusion matching or create barriers to gas exchange
pulmonary vascular disease can impair
gas transfer and lead to right heart failure
The pleural space is created by the
apposition of the inner lining of the chest wall, the parietal pleura, and the outer lining of the lung, the visceral pleura.
Gas exchange units
- alveolar ducts
On average there are ____ generations of airways in humans (from trachea to the last respiratory bronchiole).
The first ____ are the conducting airways because they form a conduit for gas transfer to and from the respiratory exchange units of the lung.
The walls are made up of three principal structures:
1. the inner mucosal surface
2. the smooth muscle layer
3. the outer connective tissue layer
the inner mucosal surface is made up of:
epithelial cells, cilia, and goblet cells
the loss of cartilage in the outer tissue layer represents the transition from _____
bronchi to bronchioles.
disease such as bronchitis and bronchiectasis refer to
airways with cartilage whereas bronchiolitis affects the bronchioles or non-cartilagenous airways.
the conducting airway is defined as
anatomic deadspace-- des not participate in gas exchange
The gas-exchange region
begins _____ and includes the_____
distal to the terminal bronchiole
respiratory bronchiole, the alveolar ducts, and the alveoli.
Type I cells
1. account for 95% of the alveolar surface area
2. fuse with the capillary endothelium to create a sufficiently thin membrane for adequate gas transfer.
Type II cells have
two primary functions:
1) to repair or replace injured Type I pneumocytes
2) to secrete surfactant, a substance which lowers alveolar surface tension.
in the lung the pulmonary arteries (and arterioles) run with the:
bronchi (and bronchioles)
Gas-exchange occurs at the:
The pulmonary veins run:
they don't run with the airways but are more peripheral.