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Flashcards in Intro Deck (60):
1

What is embryology?

The study of human development from time of conception to birth

2

Why study embryology?

Helps us to understand:

Normal relationships of body structures
Congenital anomalies
Incomplete development of structures
Gross anatomy
Diseases

3

Who named ovaries and the graffiti follicle?

Reiner de Graaf

4

What is the theory of preformation

Miniature human in each sperm
(Johan Ham van Arnhem & Anton van Leeuwenhoek)

5

What is the theory of Epigenesis?

Embryonic development results from growth and differentiation of specialized cells

Opposite of preformation

(Caspar Friedrich Wolff)

6

What is the cell theory?
When was it developed?
Who created it?

The basic structure and basic unit of reproduction in all organisms
All living organisms have at least one cell
Cells arise only from cells (Rudolf Virchow)

Developed in 1838

Matthias Schneider and Theodor Schwann

7

Schwann cells make what?

The myelin sherif that surrounds your nerves

8

What is considered prenatal?

From conception to birth

9

What is considered postnatal?

Birth to adulthood
- infancy
- childhood
- puberty
- adolescence
- adulthood

10

How many weeks for embryonic?

Weeks 1-8

11

How many weeks for fetal?

Weeks 9-birth

12

Embryo refers to

The developing human during all of its early stages of development week 2-8

13

What structures begin to form in the embryo stage?

All major structures

14

Fetus refers to

Week 9 to birth

15

What occurs during the fetal stage?

Differentiation and growth of the tissues and organs formed during the embryonic period

Esp during the 3rd and 4th months

16

Less than 1 month old is considered

A newborn or neonate

17

Infancy 1-12 months what all occurs?

Rapid growth
Length increases by 1/2
Body weight triples
6-8 teeth

18

Childhood
13 months-puberty
What all occurs?

Primary teeth erupt (20 total) and are replaced by secondary teeth (32-36)

Active ossification - pre pubertal growth spurt

19

When does puberty occur?

12-15 in girls
13-16 in boys

20

What occurs during puberty?

Secondary sex characteristics develop

21

When does puberty end?

First menses in girls

Mature sperms in boys

22

What occurs during adolescence?

11-19 y/o
Rapid physical and sexual maturation

General growth rate slows down

Sexual structures growth rate accelerate (breast and male genitalia)

23

What occurs during adulthood?

18-21 y/o

Full physical growth and maturity

Ossification and completion between age 21-25

24

Conceptus-

Entire products of conception from fertilization onward (embryo) and the membranes (amnion, chorionic sac, placenta)

25

Oocyte-

Also called ovum/egg

Female germ cell produced by the ovaries

All primary oocytes are present at birth

26

When does the oocyte begin?

During the fetal stage of development when oogonia (primordial oocyte) mature to form primary oocytes

27

Primary oocytes mature into secondary oocytes at what rate?

1 per month beginning at puberty and ceasing at menopause

28

Sperm -

Male germ cell produced in the testes (testicles)

29

Spermatogonia -

Primordial sperm cells that are dormant in the seminiferous tumbles of the male testes until puberty

30

Spermatogenesis -

Production of mature sperm
Begins at puberty and continues throughout adulthood

31

How long does the spermatogeneisis (production of mature sperm) process take?

2 months

32

Zygote-

Formed by the union of an oocyte and a sperm
Beginning of a new human being!

33

Cleavage

Mitosis cell division of the zygote

Forms embryonic cells called blastomeres

34

Morula-

12 or more blastomeres from a ball of cells
3-4 days after fertilization

35

Primordial -

An aggregation of cells in the embryo indicating the first trace of an organ or structure

36

Gestation -

The amt of time between conception and birth
40 weeks avg
Divided into trimesters

37

Trimesters-

A period of consisting of three calendar months
9 month per trimester

38

When are the most critical stages of development?

First trimester

39

Parturition

The process of fetus, placenta, and fetal membranes are expelled from mothers reproductive tract

40

Labor

A series of involuntary uterine contractions which result in the dilation of the cervix

41

3 stages of labor

1) Cervix relaxes and is completely dilated

2) fetus descends through cervix and vagina

3) placental stage as soon as fetus is born and ends with expulsion of placenta and membranes

42

When does labor officially begin?

Cervix dilates 2 in
Regular contractions less than 10 min apart
12 hrs first pregnancy
7 hrs for second pregnancy

43

Primigravidas
Multigravidas

???

44

Abortion

All naturally occurring terminations of pregnancy before 20 weeks

45

Spontaneous abortion

Occur naturally during the first 12 weeks (roughly 15% end this way)

46

Miscarriage

Naturally occurring terminations that occur after 20 weeks

47

Missed abortion

The conceptus is retained in the uterus after the death of the fetus or embryo

48

Abortus

Aborted products of conception

Or non-viable birth weighing less than 500g w/ no chance of survival

49

Reproductive organs do what?

Reproductive or sex organs that produce and transport germ cells (gametes) from the gonads (testes or ovaries) to the site of fertilization

50

Female reproductive organs

Uterus
Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Vagina

51

Uterus

Thick walled, pear shaped organ
- body (2/3)
- cervix (1/3)

52

Cervix

Has a passage way (lumen) called cervical canal which connects the uterine body with the vagina

53

The openings in the cervix are referred to

Internal os - communicates with the cavity of the body of the uterus

External os - communicates with the vagina

54

Cervical canal -

Allows sperm/semen to enter the body of the uterus for fertilization

The passage way a child passes through to be born

Dilation of it is a predictor of impending childbirth

55

Uterine body

The walls of the body of the uterus consisting of 3 layers

56

3 layers of the uterine body

1) perimetrum - thin external

2) myometrium - thick smooth muscle layer

3) endometrium - thin internal mucous membrane

57

3 layers of the endometrium:

1) compact layer lines the uterine cavity

2) spongy layer contains spiral arteries and veins

3) basal layer

58

What in the compact layer aids in the implantation?

Glandular epithelium that secrete a glycogen-right material

59

What do the spiral arteries of the spongy layer do?

During literal phase they grow into the compact layer and contains bodies of the uterine glands

Sloughed off during menses

60

Ovaries

Almond shaped glands on each side of uterus that produce oocytes

Release secondary oocytes into the uterine tubes

Produce estrogen and progesterone