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1

Ethnocentrism

Judging another culture based on preconceptions that are found in values and standards of one's own culture

2

Relativism

A person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture

3

Moral Relativism

• "nothing can ever be wrong"
• "therefore we have to tolerate all others when we disagree"

4

Four Field Approach
(Cultural and Linguistic)

1. Cultural Anthropology
- Non-genetic material that is passed from one individual, community, society to the next
- Ex. language, customs, rituals, tools

2. Linguistic
- Relationships between human speech and language
- Role of symbols in society
- Origins and the specifics of a language

5

Four Field Approach
(Archaeology, and biological)

3. Archaeology
- Scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material remains
- Artifacts (tools), art, writing, food

4. Biological
- Us !! woohoo

6

Biological vs. Physical Anthropology

• Biological is the modern, preferred term
• Reflects a broader focus of research
• Genetics and molecular biochemistry
• The study of humankind, past and present, with a focus on biological processes
- Scientific
- Variation
- Comparative
-Cross-cultural
- Multi and Interdisciplinary
- Holistic: biological, cultural, historical, environmental

7

Adaptationalistm Framework

Criteria:
1. The trait is a variation of an earlier form
2. The trait is heritable through the transmission of genes
3. The trait enhances reproductive success

8

Subfields/ Places of work

- Osteology
- Paleoanthropology
- Primatology
- Human Biology
- Nutritional
- Molecular Anthropology
- Bioarchaeology
- Paleopathology
- Forensic
• Universities (anthropology, archaeology, anatomy and cell biology departments)
• Museums
• Non- government organizations
• Independent consultants

9

The Canadian Ice Man

• Named Kwäday Dän Ts’ínchi found by Champagne and Aishihik First Nations
• Found with clothing and hunting implements
• The biological and cultural remains offered a unique window into the life of one of our First Nations ancestors

10

Hypothesis Testing

"Provisional explanation of phenomena"
• Testing provides verification or falsification
• **Any proposition that is stated as absolute or does not allow the possibility of falsification is not a scientific hypothesis and should not be considered as one**

11

Science

• A body of knowledge gained about natural phenomena through observation and experimentation

12

Scientific Method

1. A Problem is identified
2. A hypothesis is stated
3. Hypothesis is tested
• If a hypothesis stands up to repeated and rigorous testing it may become a theory (or part of a theory)
• Falsification doesn’t mean the whole hypothesis is wrong, may just be partially incorrect

13

A Theory

• In the scientific method, is NOT just a hunch or even educated guess
• It a well-tested explanation of facts
• Both theory and hypothesis can be altered over time, but more likely to see large changes in hypotheses

14

The Anthropological Perspective

• To understand humans, we need to view through both space and time
• Interested in how humans are both different from and similar to other animals, *specifically non-human primates