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Flashcards in Intro/ Development Deck (33):
1

vision testing requirements in CA

-VA upon first enrollment and every 3 years thereafter
-Color vision for boys only upon entry into the first grade

2

what are the AOA guidelines for ages for eye exams?

-by 6 months
-at 3 years
-before 1st grade and every 2 years thereafter

3

what % of children receive an eye exam before 5 years of age?

14%

4

prevalence of amblyopia

2-3%

5

what ethnic group has a higher prevalence of ambylopia

hispanic/latino

6

prevalence of strabismus

3-4%

7

prevalence of refractive error

15-30%

8

prevalence of ocular disease

< 1%

9

prevalence of color vision defects

8-10%

10

what anatomy contributes to young children not being able to see 20/20?

-immature cones (short and stumpy)
-fovea is last area of retina to develop morphologically
-immature visual cortex
-incomplete myelination

11

the VEP method of measuring VA shows what patterns of VA

1mo: 5cpd (20/120)
2.5mo: 7.8cpd (20/77)
6mo: 18cpd (20/33)
12mo: 25cpd (20/24)

12

about how long does it take for a child to reach 20/20 when measuring VA with preferential looking?

can be up until 3/4 years to see 20/20
(requires more cooperation/attention from the child)

13

when does contrast sensitivity reach adult like levels?

6-10 years

14

what is unique about accommodation for an infant?

-variable within 1-3 months
-infants have a large depth of focus

15

when does accommodation reach adult like levels for low demands?

~ 3-4 months
(but longer latency than adults)

16

what is the VOR reflex?

vestibulo-ocular reflex: connection between inner ear to EOMs to maintain fixation with head movement changes

17

what are saccades like in infants

-present at birth
-long latency, wrong direction, short amplitude

18

is stereopsis present at birth?

no

19

when is the onset of stereopsis and when is development spurt?

starts at 3-5 months
-development spurt between 4-6 months

20

when does stereopsis reach adult like levels

~ 2 years old
(300 sec of arc)

21

when is the "critical period" for binocular development

up to 3 years old

22

when is the "sensitive period" for binocular development

up to 10 years old

23

is binocular fixation and convergence present at birth?

yes

24

most infants are orthotropic at ___ month(s)

1 month

25

when do infants gain fusion

3-4 months

26

when do infants' binocular fixation and convergence become adult-like

6-7 months

27

what are some conditions that prevent development of the cortical circuits underlying stereoscopic vision (causing amblyopia)

-congenital cataracts
-esotropia
-anisometropia

28

what is unique about the anatomy in the newborn eyes

-shorter eyeball
-really steep cornea
-really powerful lens

29

what changes in the eyes anatomy from newborn to 3-9 months

-cornea loses power
-lose power in lens
-eyeball gets longer

30

the binocular visual field of normal 6 to 7 month old infants was ___% that of the adults

93 %

31

when does color vision emerge

1-3 months

32

VEP studies show what emergence for color vision for the different wavelengths

2 weeks: long and medium wavelengths
5 weeks: short wavelengths

33

when is color vision adult like

3-4 months