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Flashcards in Packet Eye Diseases Deck (21):

parinaud oculo-glandular syndrome

-cat scratch disease
-unilateral glanulamotous conjunctivitis
-prearicular and submandibular adenopathy
-self limiting
-oral antiviral may be used if more severe



-mast cell lymphocyte mediated response
-males, under 20, usually in spring and fall
-2 forms: palpebral or bulbar
-giant papillae, may have injection, photophobic, thick ropy milky discharge, extreme itch
-horner trantis dots and shield ulcer possible
-tx: antiallergy topical or steroids


Kawasaki disease

-febrile illness affecting primarily kids under 5
-unexplainable fever for more than 5 days and at least 4 of the following: bilateral conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, rash, cervical lympodenopathy, extremity changes such as redness of palm/soles, edema of hands/feet
-anterior uveitis during acute phase of disease common
-conjunctival scarring and bilateral retinal ischemia is possible
-tx: most sig. complication is coronary artery aneurysm


nasolacrimal duct obstruction

-5% of full term newborns
-thin mucosal membrane at lower end of nasolacrimal duct
-symptoms manifest by 1 month in 80-90% of cases
-severe cases resemble
tx: digital massage and topical antibiotics over 1-2 weeks, should spontaneously resolve (consider surgery after 6months-year)


Ehler Danlos syndrome

-collagen disease leading to hyper-extenable joints, easy bruising, and possible organ rupture
-can lead to keratoconus in dry eye and strabismus


heterochromia iridis

-congenital, various causes, check pupils (if miotic pupil is ipsilateral to the hypo pigmented size, must be worked up for Horner's syndrome)


PPM (persistent pupillary membrane)

-most common developmental abnormality of the iris
-present in 95% of newborns, can remain present until adulthood
-if prominent, can adhere to anterior lens capsule and cause cataract


Marfan's syndrome

-abnormalities of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and ocular symptoms
-high mortality associated with cardiac condition, 80% have ocular manifestations, 75% have upward dislocation of the lens, intact zonules, small pupil that dilates poorly, possible transillumination defects, likely myopic with high risk of RD


anterior uveitis is important because of

juvenille RA which is anterior uveitis that is recurring, normally asymptomatic (hard to see cells and flare)
-normally first sign of JRA
-if untreated, can get synechiae, band keratopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, vitritis, and mac. edema


persistent fetal vasculature/ persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

-usually unilateral and congenital, varies from prominent hyaloid vessel and mittendort dots to micro ophthalmic eyes and angle closure glaucoma


retinopathy of prematurity

-abnormal development of retinal vasculature due to prematurity, highest risk at birth weight less than 1500 grams, risk increases as gestational age and birth weight decreases, supplemental oxygen increases the incidence
-stages 1-5


Coat's disease

-presence of abnormal retinal vessels and yellow sub retinal exudates usually in macular area, usually unilateral, thought to be caused by leaking telangetasic vessels, similar appearance to ROP, Leukocoria
-management aimed at stopping leakage, prognosis is poor once macula is involved


tilted disc syndrome

-superior pole appears elevated, posterior displacement of nasal portion, could be horizontally tilted resulting in oval appearance of disc
-often accompanied by scleral crescent inferiorly, usually myopic astigmatism, tx: correct refractive error


ON hypoplasia

-decreased number of optic nerve axons, unilateral or bilateral, many causes including insult in first trimester or maternal gestational diabetes, can be seen in many syndromes
-pale and small disc, yellow white ring around disc, tortuous vessels common
-visual acuity varies and VF defects common


drusen (inner papillary)

-most common cause of pseudopapilladema in children, usually inherited
-elevated disc, does not obscure anterior blood vessels, often has irregular borders, no pallor, exudates, or hemorrhages, can be shiny if not buried
-can have VF defect that grows



-malignant, moat common malignant ocular tumor, leukocoria, 25% present with strab, vitreous hemorrhaging, glaucoma, proptosis, hypopopian



-malignant, most common orbital malignancy, normally 5-7 year old, if earlier, it is even more aggressive
-can be seen in conj, eyelid, or anterior uveal tract
80-100% present with proptosis, globe displacement, ptosis, conj and lid edema, palpebal mass and pain also possible



-port wine stain and ipsilateral vascular malformation
-can have neurological defects, not genetically transmitted but it is congenital
-when skin lesion involved the eyelids, glaucoma is likely
-retina may have deep red color, especially in posterior pole


congenital glaucoma

-1:10,000 births. results in blindness in 2-15% of cases
-usually bilateral, onset within the first year
-if it presents later, called primary juvenile glaucoma
-thought to be due to a membrane covering the trabecular meshwork
-classic triad: epiphora, photophobia, blepharospasm, other signs include corneal clouding and megalocornea, IOP ranges from 30-40mmHg
-immediate referral to OMD


antibiotic drops that can be used at > 2 months



antibiotic drops that can be used at > 4 months