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Flashcards in Intro Terms Deck (60):
1

Define characteristics of ABA

Applied, Behavioral, Analytic, Technological, conceptually systematic, effective, generality

2

ABC stands for...

Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence

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Reinforcement

Event following the behavior which increases that behavior

4

Punishment

event following the behavior which decreases that behavior

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Positive Reinforcement

Addition of a pleasant stimulus (SR+)

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Negative Reinforcement

Removal of an aversive stimulus (SR-)

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Positive Punishment

Addition of an aversive stimulus (SP+)

8

Negative Punishment

Removal of pleasant stimulus (SP-)

9

Behavioral Momentum

Antecedent Strategy Series of request for bxs associated with a high rate of reinforcement, then presenting a request for behavior that has a low-p of occurring

10

Choice

Antecedent Strategy Allowing individuals to exhibit preference in selection of materials, activities, order of task completion and/or other elements of instructional day

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Environmental Modification

Antecedent Strategy changing activities in environment or activity to increase likelihood that appropriate behaviors will occur

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Errorless learning

Antecedent Strategy Teaching procedures that reduce likelihood of incorrect responding

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Incorporating Student Interest

Antecedent Strategy Using highly preferred activities/items during instruction to increase student engagement

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Priming

Antecedent Strategy previewing student's future task/activity

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Time Delay

Antecedent Strategy providing brief delay between initial instruction and any additional prompts or instructions

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Visual Prompts

Antecedent Strategy Tools presented visually (pictures, words, checklist)

17

Contingency contracting

Consequence Strategy document that ID a contingent relationship between the completion of a specific bxs and access to specific reward

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Delayed Contingencies

Consequence Strategy Providing response to behaviors after a designated period of time has passed rather than immediately following behavior

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Differential Reinforcement

Consequence Strategy Providing reinforcement for behaviors when they occur at a certain time and place, while NOT providing reinforcement when the behaviors don't occur during another time and place

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Extinction

Consequence Strategy Withdrawing or ending the use of a reinforcer that maintained an interfering behavior

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Overcorrection

Consequence Strategy Requiring to restore or correct an environment he/she has disturbed beyond its original condition and/or requiring practice of appropriate behaviors repeatedly

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Response Interruption

Consequence Strategy Blocking attempt to engage in interfering behaviors

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Redirection

Consequence Strategy prompting to engage in more appropriate and alternative behaviors

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Reinforcement

Consequence Strategy Consequence likely to maintain or increase

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Chaining

Instructional Strategy reinforcing individual responses occurring in sequence to form a complex behavior

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DTT

Instructional Strategy providing clear cues, prompts, and consequences after a response

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Functional Communication Training (FCT)

Instructional Strategy Replacing inappropriate behavior with a communicative function and with more appropriate and effective communicative behaviors or skills

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Incidental Teaching

Instructional Strategy Teaching in natural environment using child interest along with child selected reinforcers

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Modeling

Instructional Strategy Demonstrating a desired behavior

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Pivotal Response Treatment

Instructional Strategy naturalistic intervention focused on targeting pivotal behavioral areas

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Prompting

Instructional Strategy providing help that assist in specific skills

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Shaping

Instructional Strategy reinforcing for exhibiting closer and closer approximations to desired behavior

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Task Analysis

Instructional Strategy breaking down complex behaviors into its component steps

34

Motivating Operations

Variables in the environment that can alter the relative value of a particular reinforcer at a particular time

35

Deprivation (reinforcer)

when a person hasn't had access to a particular reinforcer for a significant period of time... increases value of particular reinforcer in that moment

36

What are the variables of reinforcer effectiveness?

Deprivation, Immediacy, Size, Contingency DISC

37

What schedule of reinforcement should be used when learning a new behavior?

Continuous

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What schedule of reinforcement should be used when maintaining a behavior?

Intermittent

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Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

based on counting

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Fixed Ratio Schedule

after fixed number of responses reinforcement is provided

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Variable Ratio Schedule

Only provides reinforcement some of the time. Individual will not know when reinforcement will be produced (think slot machine)

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Which schedule of reinforcement has the highest rates of responding?

Variable ratio

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Interval schedules of reinforcement

Passage of time

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Fixed Interval Schedule

Person only gets reinforcer once the response is given after the fixed amount of time

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Variable Interval schedules

reinforcer delivered after unpredictable amount of time has passed

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Extinction Burst

Behavior increases to see if reinforcement is produced again before behavior completely goes away

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Spontaneous Recovery

behavior occurs again with full intensity even though behavior has not been reinforced

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Response Cost

Removal of pleasant stimuli or privileges after behavior (breaks curfew mom takes away keys) think positive punishment

49

Time Out

Withdrawal of opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or loss of access to positive reinforcement for a specific period of time (Think negative punishment)

50

Applied Behavior Analysis

Science of applying behavioral principles to change socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree

51

What are the first step to implementing behavioral treatment?

1. Define the behavior 2. behavioral operations must be operational

52

Direct observations

observing and recording as it occurs which makes it less subjective

53

Name direct measurement techniques

1. event recording 2. duration 3. interval recording 4. time sample recording

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What is event recording?

Behavior observed continuously and documented as it occurs

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what are you looking for in event recording?

1. does it look the same each time? 2. does behavior having a beginning or end?

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Frequency recording

used for behaviors having clear beginning and end -raising hand good example -tantrums bad example

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How do you record rate?

Frequency/time

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Duration and Latency recording

how long a behavior occurs

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Total duration

how long a behavior occurs from beginning to end

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latency

time between SD and response