Define characteristics of ABA
Applied, Behavioral, Analytic, Technological, conceptually systematic, effective, generality
ABC stands for...
Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
Event following the behavior which increases that behavior
event following the behavior which decreases that behavior
Addition of a pleasant stimulus (SR+)
Removal of an aversive stimulus (SR-)
Addition of an aversive stimulus (SP+)
Removal of pleasant stimulus (SP-)
Antecedent Strategy Series of request for bxs associated with a high rate of reinforcement, then presenting a request for behavior that has a low-p of occurring
Antecedent Strategy Allowing individuals to exhibit preference in selection of materials, activities, order of task completion and/or other elements of instructional day
Antecedent Strategy changing activities in environment or activity to increase likelihood that appropriate behaviors will occur
Antecedent Strategy Teaching procedures that reduce likelihood of incorrect responding
Incorporating Student Interest
Antecedent Strategy Using highly preferred activities/items during instruction to increase student engagement
Antecedent Strategy previewing student's future task/activity
Antecedent Strategy providing brief delay between initial instruction and any additional prompts or instructions
Antecedent Strategy Tools presented visually (pictures, words, checklist)
Consequence Strategy document that ID a contingent relationship between the completion of a specific bxs and access to specific reward
Consequence Strategy Providing response to behaviors after a designated period of time has passed rather than immediately following behavior
Consequence Strategy Providing reinforcement for behaviors when they occur at a certain time and place, while NOT providing reinforcement when the behaviors don't occur during another time and place
Consequence Strategy Withdrawing or ending the use of a reinforcer that maintained an interfering behavior
Consequence Strategy Requiring to restore or correct an environment he/she has disturbed beyond its original condition and/or requiring practice of appropriate behaviors repeatedly
Consequence Strategy Blocking attempt to engage in interfering behaviors
Consequence Strategy prompting to engage in more appropriate and alternative behaviors
Consequence Strategy Consequence likely to maintain or increase
Instructional Strategy reinforcing individual responses occurring in sequence to form a complex behavior
Instructional Strategy providing clear cues, prompts, and consequences after a response
Functional Communication Training (FCT)
Instructional Strategy Replacing inappropriate behavior with a communicative function and with more appropriate and effective communicative behaviors or skills
Instructional Strategy Teaching in natural environment using child interest along with child selected reinforcers
Instructional Strategy Demonstrating a desired behavior
Pivotal Response Treatment
Instructional Strategy naturalistic intervention focused on targeting pivotal behavioral areas
Instructional Strategy providing help that assist in specific skills
Instructional Strategy reinforcing for exhibiting closer and closer approximations to desired behavior
Instructional Strategy breaking down complex behaviors into its component steps
Variables in the environment that can alter the relative value of a particular reinforcer at a particular time
when a person hasn't had access to a particular reinforcer for a significant period of time... increases value of particular reinforcer in that moment
What are the variables of reinforcer effectiveness?
Deprivation, Immediacy, Size, Contingency DISC
What schedule of reinforcement should be used when learning a new behavior?
What schedule of reinforcement should be used when maintaining a behavior?
Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
based on counting
Fixed Ratio Schedule
after fixed number of responses reinforcement is provided
Variable Ratio Schedule
Only provides reinforcement some of the time. Individual will not know when reinforcement will be produced (think slot machine)
Which schedule of reinforcement has the highest rates of responding?
Interval schedules of reinforcement
Passage of time
Fixed Interval Schedule
Person only gets reinforcer once the response is given after the fixed amount of time
Variable Interval schedules
reinforcer delivered after unpredictable amount of time has passed
Behavior increases to see if reinforcement is produced again before behavior completely goes away
behavior occurs again with full intensity even though behavior has not been reinforced
Removal of pleasant stimuli or privileges after behavior (breaks curfew mom takes away keys) think positive punishment
Withdrawal of opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or loss of access to positive reinforcement for a specific period of time (Think negative punishment)
Applied Behavior Analysis
Science of applying behavioral principles to change socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree
What are the first step to implementing behavioral treatment?
1. Define the behavior 2. behavioral operations must be operational
observing and recording as it occurs which makes it less subjective
Name direct measurement techniques
1. event recording 2. duration 3. interval recording 4. time sample recording
What is event recording?
Behavior observed continuously and documented as it occurs
what are you looking for in event recording?
1. does it look the same each time? 2. does behavior having a beginning or end?
used for behaviors having clear beginning and end -raising hand good example -tantrums bad example
How do you record rate?
Duration and Latency recording
how long a behavior occurs
how long a behavior occurs from beginning to end
time between SD and response