Flashcards in Intro to Bones Deck (55):
2 bones meet at a...
Joints that require a lot of movement/wide range of movement (ex: Head of femur and acetabulum = hip joint) need a lot of _____ to _____.
Muscles to protect it from injury
3 Types of Joints
Fibrous joints are _____. Do they ossify with age?
Immovable; ossify with age
Two examples of fibrous joints are...
Suture = most joints of the skull
Syndesmosis = between shafts of some long bones (ex: splint bones)
ex: Cannon + 2 splint bones. Will ossify after ~6 years
Cartilaginous joints have _____.
Limited movement (midline)
Two examples of cartilaginous joints are...
Symphysis = fibrocartilage: pelvis for birthing
Growth plates (long bones) = hyaline cartilage grows and ossifies with age
Synovial joints are _____.
4 Examples of synovial joints are...
Articular cartilage = prevents friction between bones
Synovial membrane = produces lubricating synovial fluid
Fibrous joint capsule
Collateral ligaments (extra-articular)
Any identical structure found on both sides of a joint or limb is termed...
On a long bone, what is diaphysis?
Shaft of the bone
On a long bone, what is epiphysis?
Proximal and distal ends of the bone
Where the growth plate (on long bone) used to be...
Covers outside of long bone; vessel-rich
Covers end of long bone where it meets another bone in a joint
Blood for the long bone is supplied by vessels on the _____ and by the nutrient artery (through the _____) carrying blood to the...
Periosteum; Nutrient foramen; Endosteum
_____ means opening or perforation, Arteries, veins and nerves pass through this.
Axial bones (9)
Thoracic/Forelimb bones (7)
Pelvic/Hindlimb bones (9)
Pelvis (ilium, ischium, pubis)
To force a joint beyond its boundary will result in..
If a joint is shaped like a hinge, then...
It cannot move as a ball and socket
The sacrum is _____ fused together.
The 1st cervical vertebrae is...
The 2nd cervical vertebrae is...
What means a "rough area"?
The head of the femur articulates with?
Acetabulum of the pelvis
Muscles and bone are mutually _____.
Muscles need the skeletal frame to _____.
Turn the power of movement into locomotion
_____ attach to _____ by means of _____ in a strategic way to produce movement.
Muscles attach to bones by means of tendons
Joints are held in alignment by elastic strong tissues called...
Tendons: Connect _____ to _____.
Muscles to Bone
Ligaments: Connect _____ to _____.
Bone to Bone
Functions of the skeleton (5)
1. To provide a framework for other body tissues to build upon
2. To act as a system of levers for the muscles to work against, which results in movement.
3. To protect inner vital organs: brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs, kidneys, digestive system, liver, etc.
4. To store Ca and P
5. To produce red and white blood cells
The mastoid process allows the horse to...
Turn its head side to side
The perforation through which the brain connects with the spinal cord
Atlas connects cranially with...
Atlas connect caudally with...
Cranial and Caudal extremity articulate with...
Ribs articulate with what structure?
How many ribs total?
What word has to do with ribs?
What word has to do with cartilage?
Foramen or Foramina means...
Dens or odontoid has to do with..
Each rib articulates with...
TWO thoracic vertebrae
The last cervical vertebrae articulate with the _____.
1st cervical vertebrae
The 1st cervical vertebrae is an area of huge transition. It lies underneath the _____. Lots of _____ attach under the scapula. Can be a source of _____ for the horse.
Underneath the scapula
Lots of muscles attach
Can be a source of pain
The saddle is placed on which vertebrae?
Thoracic. (When placed on lumber, it causes PAIN - "roach" back)
Only _____ first ribs are attached to sternum.
_____ are united by elastic tissue. They are called _____ ribs.
9-18 - Asternal
Fused costal cartilages form...