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Flashcards in Intro to Bones Deck (55):
1

2 bones meet at a...

Joint

2

Joints that require a lot of movement/wide range of movement (ex: Head of femur and acetabulum = hip joint) need a lot of _____ to _____.

Muscles to protect it from injury

3

3 Types of Joints

Fibrous joints
Cartilaginous joints
Synovial joints

4

Fibrous joints are _____. Do they ossify with age?

Immovable; ossify with age

5

Two examples of fibrous joints are...

Suture = most joints of the skull
Syndesmosis = between shafts of some long bones (ex: splint bones)
ex: Cannon + 2 splint bones. Will ossify after ~6 years

6

Cartilaginous joints have _____.

Limited movement (midline)

7

Two examples of cartilaginous joints are...

Symphysis = fibrocartilage: pelvis for birthing
Growth plates (long bones) = hyaline cartilage grows and ossifies with age

8

Synovial joints are _____.

Movable

9

4 Examples of synovial joints are...

Articular cartilage = prevents friction between bones
Synovial membrane = produces lubricating synovial fluid
Fibrous joint capsule
Collateral ligaments (extra-articular)

10

Any identical structure found on both sides of a joint or limb is termed...

Collateral

11

On a long bone, what is diaphysis?

Shaft of the bone

12

On a long bone, what is epiphysis?

Proximal and distal ends of the bone

13

Where the growth plate (on long bone) used to be...

Epiphyseal line

14

Covers outside of long bone; vessel-rich

Periosteum

15

Covers end of long bone where it meets another bone in a joint

Articular cartilage

16

Blood for the long bone is supplied by vessels on the _____ and by the nutrient artery (through the _____) carrying blood to the...

Periosteum; Nutrient foramen; Endosteum

17

_____ means opening or perforation, Arteries, veins and nerves pass through this.

Foramen

18

Axial bones (9)

Head
Mandible
Atlas
Axis
Cervical vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum
Coccygeal vertebrae

19

Thoracic/Forelimb bones (7)

Scapula
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpus
Metacarpus
Phalanges
Sesamoids

20

Pelvic/Hindlimb bones (9)

Pelvis (ilium, ischium, pubis)
Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Patella
Tarsus
Metatarsus
Phalanges
Sesamoids

21

To force a joint beyond its boundary will result in..

Unsoundness

22

If a joint is shaped like a hinge, then...

It cannot move as a ball and socket

23

The sacrum is _____ fused together.

5 vertebrae

24

The 1st cervical vertebrae is...

Atlas

25

The 2nd cervical vertebrae is...

Axis

26

What means a "rough area"?

Tuberosity

27

The head of the femur articulates with?

Acetabulum of the pelvis

28

Muscles and bone are mutually _____.

Dependent

29

Muscles need the skeletal frame to _____.

Turn the power of movement into locomotion

30

_____ attach to _____ by means of _____ in a strategic way to produce movement.

Muscles attach to bones by means of tendons

31

Joints are held in alignment by elastic strong tissues called...

Ligaments

32

Tendons: Connect _____ to _____.

Muscles to Bone

33

Ligaments: Connect _____ to _____.

Bone to Bone

34

Functions of the skeleton (5)

1. To provide a framework for other body tissues to build upon
2. To act as a system of levers for the muscles to work against, which results in movement.
3. To protect inner vital organs: brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs, kidneys, digestive system, liver, etc.
4. To store Ca and P
5. To produce red and white blood cells

35

The mastoid process allows the horse to...

Turn its head side to side

36

The perforation through which the brain connects with the spinal cord

Foramen Magnum

37

Atlas/occipital

"Yes" motion

38

Atlas/axis

"No" motion

39

Atlas connects cranially with...

Occipital bone

40

Atlas connect caudally with...

Axis

41

Cranial and Caudal extremity articulate with...

Other vertebrae

42

Ribs articulate with what structure?

Thoracic vertebrae

43

How many ribs total?

36

44

What word has to do with ribs?

Costal

45

What word has to do with cartilage?

Chondro

46

Foramen or Foramina means...

Hole

47

Dens or odontoid has to do with..

Teeth/Tooth

48

Each rib articulates with...

TWO thoracic vertebrae

49

The last cervical vertebrae articulate with the _____.

1st cervical vertebrae

50

The 1st cervical vertebrae is an area of huge transition. It lies underneath the _____. Lots of _____ attach under the scapula. Can be a source of _____ for the horse.

Underneath the scapula
Lots of muscles attach
Can be a source of pain

51

The saddle is placed on which vertebrae?

Thoracic. (When placed on lumber, it causes PAIN - "roach" back)

52

Only _____ first ribs are attached to sternum.

8

53

_____ are united by elastic tissue. They are called _____ ribs.

9-18 - Asternal

54

Fused costal cartilages form...

Costal arch

55

Horses have _____ pairs of ribs (Sometimes _____).

18 (Sometimes 19)