Intro to Ecology -50 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Ecology -50 Deck (47):
1

What is ecology`s goal


[*] Ecology’s goal is to explain the distribution and abundance of organisms. It is the branch of biology that provides a scientific foundation for conservation efforts.
 

2

What are the four levels of ecology

organisims

populations

communities

ecosystems

3

What are the primary factors limiting distribution and abundance of aquatic species

 

Nutrients: nitrogen and phosporus mech - ocean upsell, lake turnover

Water depth:  sun wavelengths - how far it can reach determins diversity photosynthesis

 

runoff locations

 

4

What are the pirmary factors limiting distribution and abundance of terrestrial specites

 

climate - terrestrial vegitation  - biomes

temp and moisture predict productivity and degree of seasonality in biomes

 

Biotic & abiotic

5

Why does climate vary with latitude, elevation, and proximity to oceans and mountains

 

abiotic factors: wind, sunlight, temp, moisture, soil health, chemistry of H2O, sun asymmetric radiation, Hadley cells, mountains, ocean (moderates temperature)

6

How a species distribution contrained by historical, biotic and abiotic factors

 

dispersal ability

climactic survival

avoiding predators

historical

7

Define morphological

 

shape and appearance of body and components

8

define physiological

 

how a body functions

9

What affects an organisims capacity to live in a place

 

morphological

physiological

behavioural

10

What is a population

 

# individuals of same species

 live at the same place & time

11

define community ecology

how specites interact in an area

Effects: predation, parasitism, competition or natural disasters

12

define ecosystem

 

all living and non living things, nutrients, and energy move and change

pollution study

13

what is the purpose of conservation biology

 

to study, preserve and restore threatened commuinities of ecosystems poplution

14

define abiotic

 

non living

air 

water

soil

temp

precipitation

sun

wind

15

define biotic

 

living

of same or different species

16

define productivity

total carbon fixed by photosynthesis per unit year

17

define eutrophication

 

result of overfertilizing lakes - increase photoplanction, increase aquatic plants and decrease of oxygen in deep water

caused by phosphorus detergents

18

define littoral zone

 

seashore

19

limnetic zone

 

lake zone

shore

20

benthic zone

 

depths - substrate level

21

photic zone

areas receiving sunlinght - plancton

22

aphotic zone

not receiving sunlight

23

What will happen to small tropical lakes, no currents, constant temp, getting excess nutrients

how does this affect the diversity of life

 

no thermoincline = no turnover of lake

at littoral zone = huge bloom and consumption of ozygen in water = dead zone = decrease of ecological diversity

24

why are fish in cold fast moving water more active than in warm slow moving streams

 

fast water = high oxygen content - cellular respiration increased, and low nutrient levels bc washing away

slow water = decrease oxygen levels and increase nutrient levels

25

estuary

enviro of brackish salt water as rivers meet ocean

constant fluctuation of salinity as water flow changes

26

why do esutaries and freshwater marshes have decreased amount of species athough both have shallow water havitats with a lage number of rooted plants

estuary

high fluctuation of nutrients

low amount of species have the adaptations to deal with a constantly fluctuation environment - salinity

27

biome

 

major grouping of plant and animal communities defined by dominant vegitation

28

climate

 

prevailing long term wather in an area

29

weather

specific short term atmospheric conditions - temp precipitation sun and wind

30

biome nature

 

average annual temp and precipitation

annual variation in temp and precipitation

species depend on temp an dmoisture regime

31

net primary producticity (NPP)

 

amount of carbon fixed per year versus amount oxidized via cellular respiration

32

biomass

 

total mass of carbon organisims

33

above ground biomass

 

total mass of above ground plants

34

Why do vines and epiphytes increase the productivity of tropical wet forests

 

space fille between small and large trees

capture light and nutrients may not be used otherwise

increases efficiency

35

How have desert plants evolved

slow growth rate

fast grouing during the rainy season

small or no leaves

thick waxy coating

evolved to prevent water loss

36

Eyeless fish and crustaceans found in large underground cave systems.  Why do these animals found in aphotic zones have non functioning eyes

no sunlight  = no need to invest energy to grow them

adaptation

37

Why are fies more common in grasslands than in desets although grassland has more rainfall

 

lots more fuel for fire

38

How will Mountain pine beetle affect boreal forests distrivution - climate change

 

boreal forests huge carbon sink = large amount of co2 releaseing into the atmosphere = high rate of climate change

39

What are rain shadows

lack of rain on one side of the mountain on side and desert on the other

40

What is a Hadley cell

major cycle in global air sys

air wetter at equador = increased temp decresed pressure = air rises and causes a push

repeats at 30-60 degree

and 60 - north pole

41

What are the distinct charateristics and distribution of tropical wet forests

equatorial regions

broad leaves

consistant temp

high variation in precipitation, very high annual total

tree canopy

epiphytes

42

What are the distinct charateristics and distribution of subtropical deserts

 

found  degrees latitue, or distance from the equator, north and south

high average temp - moderate variation

low annual precipitation

plants - intense competion of water

43

What are the distinct characteristics of seperate grasslands

 

found central N american and and Eurasia

moderate variation in temp - hot summers - cold winters

precipitation - variation moderate and annual total is low

lots of prarie fires

plant life very dense

44

distigushing factors of temperate forests

 

N America, W Europe, East Asia, Chile, New Zealand

high ave temp, variation moderate

Precipitation- low

deciduous species - diversity moderate

45

distingushing charateristics of boreal forests

 

Canada, Alaska, Russia, N Europe - subarctic

Temp ave low, variation high

Precipitation Low

cold temp = low evaporation = tree growth

evergreens

acidic soils, low nitrogen

large biomass, low species variation

46

distingushing charateristics of arctic tundra

 

poleward from the subarctic North and South

Temp - very low, variation high

precipitation - low

short woody shrubs

permafrost

47

Consequences of climate change

 

species diversity decreases

high variability in temp and precipitation

decreasing fitness of species