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Flashcards in Intro to ENT Deck (4)
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Emergent ENT problems?

- upper airway obstruction:
acute laryngeal edema

facial fractures -
orbital, nasal and facial


What calls for immediate referral?

- severe or persistent epistaxis
- tonsilar hemorrhage
- hoarseness assoc with neck trauma or surgery
- laryngeal obstruction and or fracture
- acute nasal fracture with septal hematoma
- complicated mastoiditis/cholesteatoma or sinusitis (periorbital cellulitis, frontal sinusitis with persistent frontal HA)
- pharyngeal/laryngeal FB
- abscess or hematoma, eg peritonsillar abscess, septal or auricular hematoma, paranasal sinus pyocele
- nasal foreign body - battery
- barotrauma with sudden onset vertigo


Urgent referral?

- malignant neoplasm of head and neck: larynx, nasopharynx, oral cavity, unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy
- subacute dysphonia/airways problems, eg laryngeal papilloma, laryngeal stridor
- acute facial nerve trauma
- documented sinusitis not responding to conservative management
- paranasal sinus mucocele
- fracture of paranasal sinus
- nasal fracture with external nasal deformity
- hoarseness with sig dysphagia or present for more than 4 weeks
- progressive or persistent dyphagia
- neck masses


Non urgent referrals?

- elective tonsillitis after peritonsilar abscess
- chronic tonsillitis
- adenoiditis