Intro to Geriatrics Flashcards Preview

Clinical Disciplines II-Exam #1 > Intro to Geriatrics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Geriatrics Deck (54)
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1

What is the life span @ birth for females?

79 y.o.

2

What is the life span @ birth for males?

74 y.o.

3

What is weakness d/t in aging?

1. Loss of muscle mass
2. Loss of bone density

4

What are the "normal" changes of aging a result of?

Gradual loss of homeostatic mechanisms

5

What two things does the functional performance of an organ in an older person depend on?

1. Rate of deterioration
2. Level of performance needed

6

What is the hallmark of agin?

How an organism performs during EXTERNAL STRESS

7

How frequently should weight be checked in the elderly?

@ every visit

8

How often should you check heigh in elderly?

Annually

9

What is a decrease in height due to in elderly?

1. Osteoporosis
2. Arthritis

10

How should you take BP in the elderly?

in BOTH arms for @ least 30 seconds

11

why can BP be false overestimated in elderly?

Pseudohypertension: Noncompressibility of thickened, stiff arteries

12

What must you perform to avoid pseudo hypertension?

Osler's maneuver: Palpate radial artery while cuff is being inflated to ensure pulse wave actually disappers

13

Why should you check blood pressure in both arms?

obstructive atherosclerotic vascular dz

14

What does a respiratory rate >25 breaths/min indicate in elderly?

1st sign of lower respiratory tract infections

15

What is the cardinal sx of dry eyes?

Tearing

16

What are elderly @ an increased risk for d/t lens thickening?

Narrow-angle glaucoma

17

Define presbyopia

Blurred near vision

18

Define presbycusis

Diminished hearing in old age:
Loss of high pitched sounds

19

What can basilar rales/crackles be due to in elderly? How do you check?

Atelectasis from decreased use of lungs
Should clear with deep inhalation and cough

20

What can Kyphoscoliosis cause?

Displacement of apical impulse

21

How long should you listen to heart sounds?

30 sec-1 min

22

What increases in elderly in order to maintain CO?

SV

23

What heart murmur DOES radiate to the carotids?

Aortic valve stenosis

24

Where can you hear mitral regurgitation the loudest?

@ apex and radiates to axilla

25

What does hypertrophic cardiomyopathy increase with?

Valsalva maneuver

26

What are COMMON peripheral vascular system changes, but NOT normal aging changes?

Arterial and venous changes: i.e. atherosclerosis

27

Who is at an increased risk for AAA?

Back/Abd pain: Male 65+, smoker

28

What can further worsen respiratory function in the elderly?

Kyphosis from aging

29

When would you want to perform an anal wink? What is it? What are you testing for?

Sudden Fecal Incontinence: Herniated disc (above S2)
SF visceral reflex:
Afferent= Pudendal nerve
Efferent=S2-S4

30

What percentage of men does ED and BPH effect?

50%

31

At what age range do we see cessation of menstrual periods?

45-52

32

How often should you perform a Pelvic exam + Pap smear?

every 2-3 years until age 65

33

If the patient lacks hip mobility, what side should they lay on?

Left side

34

What does palpable ovaries 10 years post-menopause suggest?

CA

35

Where do we see loss of height occur most frequently?

Trunk: Intravertebral disc thinning

36

List OA findings

1. Hebedern's Nodes: DIP
2. Bouchrd Nodes: PIP

37

List RA findings

1. Subluxation of MCP's w/ ulnar deviation (chronic)
2. Swan neck deformity
3. Boutonnier deformity

38

Lis the age-related findings in feet

Hallux valgus
Hammer toe
Claw toe

39

What can toe deformities result from?

1. Ill-fitting foot war
2. RA
3. DM
4. Neuro d/o

40

Who should be referred to podiatry?

ANY patient with a foot disorder

41

Define Benign Forgetfulness

Difficulty recalling names of people/objects or details of specific events

42

Define Bell Phenomenon

Reflex upward movement of eyes during closure is sometimes absent

Normal aging change

43

What is decreased sense of smell due to?

1. Decreased olfactory neurons
2. Numerous URI's
3. Chronic Rhinitis

44

What is decreased tase due to?

1. Decreased sense of smell
2. Medications that cause dry mouth

45

Define Sarcopenia

-Decrease in muscle mass
-MCly affect. hand muscles
-Insignificant findings unless there is a decline or change in function (pt has to use chair arms to stand)

46

What parts of the body do we see vibratory sensory loss?

Feet and Ankles

47

Neurogenic claudication etiology

Lumbar spinal stenosis

48

Neurogenic claudication si/s's

Pain, numbness, weakness during walking
Decreases with sitting

49

Difficulty initiating walking etiology

1. Frontal/subcortical d/o
2. Isolated gait initiation failure
3. Parkinsons

50

Truncal instability (sway) etiology

1. Hip/Knee Arthritis
2. Cerebellar/Subcortical/Basal Ganglia dysfunction

51

Step asymmetry etiology

1. Focal neuro deficit
2. Pain or weakness in one leg
3. Unilateral msk deficit

52

Step discontinuity etiology

1. Fear of falling
2. Frontal lobe d/o

53

Stride with abnormalities etiology

1. Cerebellar d/o
2. Hip d/o
3. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

54

What test do we use to measure stability?

Romberg