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Clinical Disciplines II-Exam #1 > Prevention > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prevention Deck (28)
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1

What is the major outcome of chronic diseases other than death?

Disability

2

What are the MC CA's?

1. Lung
2. Colorectal
3. Breast

3

What percentage of older adults have HTN?

40%

4

What percentage of adults have heart disease?

1/3

5

What percentage of disabilities occur chronically and progressively as chronic diseases become more severe?

1/2

6

What is the most feared outcome of disability?

Loss of independence

7

List the precursors to disability

1. Difficulty walking
2. Cognitive impairment
3. Visual impairment

8

Define Primary Prevention

Intervention to prevent dz or injury

9

List examples of Primary Prevention

1. Vaccines
2. BP monitoring
3. Exercise
4. Seat Belts
5. Home Environment evaluation*
6. Oral Care*

10

Define Secondary Prevention

Intervention for those with EARLY CONDITION to prevent PROGRESSION into complications

Ex: Smoking cessation in pt's with arterial dz

11

What is an examples of Secondary Prevention

Screenings:
1. Mammography <75
2. Colonoscopy, FOB
3. Vision

12

Define Tertiary Prevention

Efforts to IMPROVE CARE to AVOID late complications

Ex: Chronic Dz management

13

List examples of Tertiary Prevention

1. Proactive Primary Care
2. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
3. Foot Care
4. Toileting
5. Rehab

14

What two factors is the benefit of prevention dependent on?

1. PREVALENCE of problem
2. LIKELIHOOD of an effective intervention

15

What is prevention in older adults targeted at?

Prevention of Syndromes:
1. Falls
2. Dizziness
3. Functional decline
4. Incontinence

16

What is the benefit of pneumonia prevention (vaccines)?

1. Decrease need for hospitalizations
2. Decrease functional decline

17

What is the benefit of osteoporosis prevention?

Cost effective in elderly

18

Define Multimorbidity

Decreased risk of one dz may leave older people more vulnerable to others

Ex: Decreasing SBP below 120/80 can cause dizziness/falls d/t decreased profusion to brain

19

What is the USPTF recommendations for prevention screening

1. Regular "periodic" screening
2. 65+: Screening, counseling, immnunizations
3. Welcome to Medicare visit

20

Screening for psychosocial problems

1. PHQ-9
2. Beck Depression Inventory
3. Geriatric Depression Scale

21

Screening for cognitive impairment

Mini Mental Status Exam

22

What is the recommended amount of physical activity in older adults?

150 minutes/week of moderate intensity

23

What does low BMI or unintentional weight loss >10 lbs in 6 months indicate?

Poor nutrition and disease

24

What can you use to help identify those @ risk for malnutrition?

Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)

25

What is the most preventable problem in older adults?

Iatrogenesis

26

List common Iatrogenic problems

1. Excessive Testing/Overevaluation*
2. Polypharmacy
3. Oversedation
4. Fluid overload
5. Abx overuse

27

What is the leading iatrogenic event in LTC facilities?

Learned Dependence

28

Management of falls

1. PT & OT
2. Gait training, muscle strength training, adaptive behaviors
3. Assistive devices
4. Environment manipulations
5. Hip protectors