Intro To Immunology Flashcards Preview

HDM Midterm > Intro To Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro To Immunology Deck (47):
1

What are the CD markers for B-cells?

CD19+ & CD21+
(19 used more frequently)

2

What is the CD marker for T-cells?

CD3+

T-cells are CD3+, helper cells are CD3+ and CD4+

3

What are the CD markers for Th (helper T -cells) cells?

CD3+ and CD4+

4

Th1 secretes the following 3 cytokines...

IL-2,

IL-12,

IFN-y

5

Th2 secretes the following 3 cytokines....

IL-4,

IL-5,

IL-13

6

Th17 secretes the following cytokines...

IL-17,

IL-22

7

CD markers for T-regulators are _______, _________ and ___________

CD3+,

CD4+,

CD25+

8

Tregs (Regulating T-cells) secrete _______ and _________, which __________

IL-10
&
TGF-B

Regulate/subdue the immune/inflammatory response = are anti-inflammatory

9

CTLs (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) are identified by CD markers _______ and ________

CD3+

CD8+

10

Match the following cells/structures with innate or adaptive immunity:
Antibodies
Epithelial barriers
Mast cells
Phagocytes
T lymphocytes
Dendritic cells
Complemetn
NK cells and ILCs
B lymphocytes

Innate: epithelial barriers, mast cells, phagocytes, dendritic cells, complement, NK cells and ILCs

Adaptive Immunity: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, antibodies

11

What is the bridge from innate to adaptive immunity?

Dendritic cells

12

Specific immunity is defined....

The ability to distinguish b/w different, closely related microbes and molecules (adaptive)

13

Acquire immunity is defined as....

The case where potent protective responses are "acquired" by experience

14

Which cytokine tells a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell to differentiate to a lymphoid progenitor?

IL-7

15

Pro-T cells are generated in the ______
Pro-B cells are generated in the ______

T-cells mature in the _________
B-cells mature in the _________

Both are generated in bone marrow

T cells mature in the THYMUS
B cells mature in the BONE MARROW

16

Describe DiGeorge syndrome genetically and symptomatically.

Contiguous deletion of 22q11.21 through 22q11.23

Thymus hypoplasia or asplasia, hypoparathyroidism, congenital cardia malformations, characteristic facial abnormalities

Degree of immunodeficiency varies considerably depending on how much thymus is lost.

Recurrent infections begin soon after birth.

17

Mature naive lymphocytes recirculate between the ________ and the ____________

Blood

Peripheral lymphoid organs

18

True or false, the number of lymphocytes in the blood is much higher than the number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes.

FALSE, the number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes is WAY larger than anywhere else in the body

It goes lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow/intestines,lungs, skin, blood/liver

19

APCs most typically activate _________

T-cells

20

T-cells circulate in the ___________

Lymphatic system

21

T-cells will stop circulation when they meet a ________

APC (antigen presenting cell) that is specific to them

22

Antibodies are attached to or secreted by ________

B-cells

23

Antibodies and B-cells with attached antibodies will typically circulate in the _________

Blood

24

Antibodies circulating in the blood will stop if presented with _________

Soluble antigens in the blood

25

Activated dendritic cells travel to ______________ and present _____ to ____________

Secondary lymphoid tissues
Ag
Mature, naive T-cells

26

Ag is presented within _________ Class I and/or II

MHC/HLA

27

MHC refers to _______, whereas HLA refers to ________

Mice
Humans

28

Humoral immunity involves ___________ that neutralize and eradicate ______________

Antibodies

Exogenous antigens

29

Cell-mediated immunity involves the eradication of _________________

Endogenous antigens

30

The branch of immunity mediated by antibodies produced by B-cells and plasma cells that is the principle adaptive defense against extracellular pathogens is called_________

Humoral immunity

31

During pregnancy, a fetus receives _______ from the mother through the _________

Newborns receive ________ from __________

IgG
Placenta

IgA
Breast milk

32

The branch of immunity demiated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that is the principal adaptive defense against intracellular pathogens is called ________

Cell-mediated immunity

33

TH1 secretes _______ which causes _________ activation and ______ production

IFN-y

Macrophage

IgG

34

TH1 cells defend against __________ and play a role in __________ diseases and __________ associated with chronic infections

Intracellular microbes

Autoimmune

Tissue damage

35

TH2 cells secrete _______, _________ & ________

IL-4,

IL-5,

IL-13

36

TH2 cells cause the activation of _________,___________

__________production

And "alternative" __________ activation

Mast cell, eosinophil

IgE

Macrophage

37

TH2 cells defend against ____________

And play a role in __________ disease

Helminthic parasites (worms)

Allergic

38

TH17 cells secrete ________ __________, & ____________

IL-17A

IL-17F

IL-22

39

TH17 cells are involved in the immune reactions of __________ and ____________ _______________

Neutrophilic

Monocytic

Inflammation

40

TH17 cells defend against ____________ and _________

Extracellular bacteria
&
Fungi

41

TH17 cells play a role in __________ ____________ diseases

Autoimmune inflammatory

42

Innate and adaptive response can reinforce each other. For example, Antigen-presenting cells (dendritic or macrophages) with ingested microbes can produce ______ which activate naive CD4+ T cells. These now active T-cells are effector T cells, which secrete ______, which activates macrophages so they can kill microbes.

IL-12 (Expansion of T cells to TH1 cells)

IFN-y

43

Cytotoxic T Cells are associated with what CD marker?

CD8+

44

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+) are ________-specific, ______ restricted,

Involved in the killing of ___________ pathogens

They store lytic granules that contain __________, which are delivered direction onto the surface of the infected target cell.

Antigen-specific

MHC restricted

Intracellular

Cytotoxins

45

Define immunization

Antigenic stimulus that elicits specific adaptive immune responses that can be recalled during subsequent infections

46

What type of immunization involves the introduction of antibody or antiserum into a naive recipient?

Give two examples of this type of immunization.

Passive

Artificial passive: IVIG

Natural passive: maternal IgG across placenta and IgA through breast milk

47

What type of immunization involves the introduction of an antigen that provokes an adaptive immune response?

Give two examples of this type of immunization.

Active immunization

Natural: exposure to antigen in the world

Artificial: vaccination