Flashcards in Intro To Immunology Deck (47):
What are the CD markers for B-cells?
CD19+ & CD21+
(19 used more frequently)
What is the CD marker for T-cells?
T-cells are CD3+, helper cells are CD3+ and CD4+
What are the CD markers for Th (helper T -cells) cells?
CD3+ and CD4+
Th1 secretes the following 3 cytokines...
Th2 secretes the following 3 cytokines....
Th17 secretes the following cytokines...
CD markers for T-regulators are _______, _________ and ___________
Tregs (Regulating T-cells) secrete _______ and _________, which __________
Regulate/subdue the immune/inflammatory response = are anti-inflammatory
CTLs (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) are identified by CD markers _______ and ________
Match the following cells/structures with innate or adaptive immunity:
NK cells and ILCs
Innate: epithelial barriers, mast cells, phagocytes, dendritic cells, complement, NK cells and ILCs
Adaptive Immunity: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, antibodies
What is the bridge from innate to adaptive immunity?
Specific immunity is defined....
The ability to distinguish b/w different, closely related microbes and molecules (adaptive)
Acquire immunity is defined as....
The case where potent protective responses are "acquired" by experience
Which cytokine tells a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell to differentiate to a lymphoid progenitor?
Pro-T cells are generated in the ______
Pro-B cells are generated in the ______
T-cells mature in the _________
B-cells mature in the _________
Both are generated in bone marrow
T cells mature in the THYMUS
B cells mature in the BONE MARROW
Describe DiGeorge syndrome genetically and symptomatically.
Contiguous deletion of 22q11.21 through 22q11.23
Thymus hypoplasia or asplasia, hypoparathyroidism, congenital cardia malformations, characteristic facial abnormalities
Degree of immunodeficiency varies considerably depending on how much thymus is lost.
Recurrent infections begin soon after birth.
Mature naive lymphocytes recirculate between the ________ and the ____________
Peripheral lymphoid organs
True or false, the number of lymphocytes in the blood is much higher than the number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes.
FALSE, the number of lymphocytes in lymph nodes is WAY larger than anywhere else in the body
It goes lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow/intestines,lungs, skin, blood/liver
APCs most typically activate _________
T-cells circulate in the ___________
T-cells will stop circulation when they meet a ________
APC (antigen presenting cell) that is specific to them
Antibodies are attached to or secreted by ________
Antibodies and B-cells with attached antibodies will typically circulate in the _________
Antibodies circulating in the blood will stop if presented with _________
Soluble antigens in the blood
Activated dendritic cells travel to ______________ and present _____ to ____________
Secondary lymphoid tissues
Mature, naive T-cells
Ag is presented within _________ Class I and/or II
MHC refers to _______, whereas HLA refers to ________
Humoral immunity involves ___________ that neutralize and eradicate ______________
Cell-mediated immunity involves the eradication of _________________
The branch of immunity mediated by antibodies produced by B-cells and plasma cells that is the principle adaptive defense against extracellular pathogens is called_________
During pregnancy, a fetus receives _______ from the mother through the _________
Newborns receive ________ from __________
The branch of immunity demiated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that is the principal adaptive defense against intracellular pathogens is called ________
TH1 secretes _______ which causes _________ activation and ______ production
TH1 cells defend against __________ and play a role in __________ diseases and __________ associated with chronic infections
TH2 cells secrete _______, _________ & ________
TH2 cells cause the activation of _________,___________
And "alternative" __________ activation
Mast cell, eosinophil
TH2 cells defend against ____________
And play a role in __________ disease
Helminthic parasites (worms)
TH17 cells secrete ________ __________, & ____________
TH17 cells are involved in the immune reactions of __________ and ____________ _______________
TH17 cells defend against ____________ and _________
TH17 cells play a role in __________ ____________ diseases
Innate and adaptive response can reinforce each other. For example, Antigen-presenting cells (dendritic or macrophages) with ingested microbes can produce ______ which activate naive CD4+ T cells. These now active T-cells are effector T cells, which secrete ______, which activates macrophages so they can kill microbes.
IL-12 (Expansion of T cells to TH1 cells)
Cytotoxic T Cells are associated with what CD marker?
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+) are ________-specific, ______ restricted,
Involved in the killing of ___________ pathogens
They store lytic granules that contain __________, which are delivered direction onto the surface of the infected target cell.
Antigenic stimulus that elicits specific adaptive immune responses that can be recalled during subsequent infections
What type of immunization involves the introduction of antibody or antiserum into a naive recipient?
Give two examples of this type of immunization.
Artificial passive: IVIG
Natural passive: maternal IgG across placenta and IgA through breast milk