Flashcards in Primer To Immunology Deck (91):
Define immune system
A collection of cells,molecule, and tissues involved in an immune response
Define Immune responses
Responses we make against foreign macromolecules (defense)
Response of antigen-specific lymphocytes to antigen includes MEMORY (protective)
Protection against antigens that relies on mechanisms that exist before exposure
List 4 roles of the immune system
1. Defense against infections
2. Defense against tumors
3. The immune system can injure cells and induce pathological inflammation
4. The immune system recognizes and responds to tissue grafts and newly introduced proteins
Discuss implications of the role of the immune system to defend against infections.
Deficient immunity would result in increased susceptibility. This is exemplified by AIDS.
Vaccination can boost immune defenses and protect against infections.
Discuss implications of the role of the immune system to defend against tumors.
There is potential for immunotherapy as an anti-cancer treatment.
Discuss implications of the immune system's role to injure cells and induce pathological inflammation.
Immune responses are the cause of allergic, autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases.
How could the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tissue grafts and newly introduced proteins pose problems in treating patients?
Immune responses are barriers to transplantation and gene therapy.
CD (Cluster of differentiation): cell surface molecules expressed on various cell types designated by a CD number
They are used to define cell type, receptors, etc. Recognized by monoclonal Abs.
They define a population of cells and are measured to determine a problematic response.
Bioactive protein molecules that mediate immune responses
IFN-alpha, beta, gamma
Autocrine, paracrine, exocrine actions, pleitropic
List 5 types of cytokines
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor)
IFN-a,B,y (Interferons-alpha, beta, gamma)
TGF-B (transforming growth factor)
CSF (Colony Stimulating Factor)
List two types of acquired or adaptive immunity
Passive & Active
List two types of Passive Adaptive Immunity
& Natural (Maternal)
List two types of Active Adaptive Immunity
& Natural (Infection/exposure)
What is IVIG?
IVIG is an example of what type of immunity?
IVIG is the name for immunoglobulin therapy (a mixture of antibodies used to treat a number of health conditions like measles, HIV/AIDS, primary immunodeficiency)
Artificial Passive Adaptive Immunity
Immunity gained by an infant during pregnancy represents what type of immunity?
(Maternal) Natural Passive Adaptive Immunity
A Vaccine provides recipients with what type of immunity?
Artificial Active Adaptive Immunity
An infection or exposure would provide what type of immunity?
Natural Active Adaptive
Which type of immunity has a faster response: innate or adaptive?
How long does each take to be activated?
Innate will soon after infection, within hours
Adaptive Immunity takes days to be effective
Does active or passive immunity have both specificity and memory?
Active immunity has both specificity and memory.
Passive memory has specificity but not memory.
Briefly explain how passive immunity works when using IVIG
If you administer a serum of antibodies from an immune individual to an uninflected individual they will be protected from infection for a set period of time until the antibodies break down. Most proteins break down in 15-20 days.
Innate Immunity provides protection against infections that relies on mechanisms that exist _________ infection, are capable of _________ response to microbes, and react in essentially ______________ to repeat infections.
The same way
Innate immunity is normally _________ in absence of infection and is found in ________________ tissue.
What type of immunity is not antigen specific (limited diversity)?
Innate Immunity is not antigen specific but recognizes structures shared by many microbes.
Innate Immunity has no immunologic __________ so it responds _____________ to every challenge.
The same way
Innate immune responses stimulate _________
The adaptive immune response
List 4 differentiated cells that come from CFU-GM cells (and Myeloid stem cells before that):
(Natural Killer cells, NK cells? Are these included?)
These cytokines are crucial in the development of Monocytes/macrophages...
These cytokines are crucial in the development of Neutrophils...
These cytokines are crucial in the development of Eosinophils...
These cytokines are crucial in the development of Basophils...
Eosinophils differentiate in response to _____ and account for _____ of white blood cells.
Eosinophils survive in circulation for ______ hours and can survive in tissue for an additional _________ in the absenc of stimulation.
Eosinophils are responsible for combatting __________________ and they play a major role in __________ diseases like their "sister" granulocytes.
Atopic is a synonym for _________
Basophils is a circulatory cell with a ___________ cytoplasm that stains with _________ dye (colored _________).
Basophils have a ____________ nucleus.
True or False: Basophils are phagocytic.
False, basophils are non-phagocytic and release of pharmacologically active substance contained within granules
How do basophils help fight against parasites?
Basophils release pharmacologically active substances contained within granules to fight parasites and can contribute to atopic disease.
Basophils that live in the tissue are called ___________
Two types of mast cells are...?
Tissue and Mucosal
Mast cells can be stimulated to __________ by direct ________, chemicals, alcohols, and certain antibiotics, cross-linking of IgE receptors or by activated C' proteins
Mast cells play a key role in ___________
And are also evident in _________
Mast cells granule content release includes...
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
Mast cells release membrane derived lid mediators such as...
PAF (platelet activation factor)
Mast cells produce the following cytokines...
The CD marker for Mast cells is ________ and they have a high affinity for _________
CD23 is a marker for ____________
Are natural killer cells involved with innate or adaptive immunity? What do they do specifically?
Both! In innate immunity, they recognize infected, stressed, or malignant cells and kill them. They release granzymes then performing activating enzymes that lead to apoptosis of the target cell.
In adaptive immunity, there is a principle mediator of ADCC (antibody dependent cellular cytoxicity), which is an activating receptor of IgG Fc.
Natural killer cells in innate immunity are activated by...
Type I IFNs
Activated NKs secrete...
And IFN-y activates macrophages (?)
NKs are a principle mediator of _________ in adaptive immunity, activating receptor _______
ADCC (antibody dependent cellular cytoxity)
CD markers for Natural Killer cells are _______ and ________.
List 3 types of phagocytes:
__________are circulating, short lived, rapid response, but don't provide prolonged defense
Monocytes location= ?
Macrophage location = ?
Monocytes/macrophages provide a more or less prolonged response in comparison with neutrophils?
M1 is known as a _________macrophage, is induced by ___________ and plays a role in ___________
M2s are known as __________ macrophages and are induced by ______ and ________ and play a role in _________ and _____________
IL-4 & IL-13
Control of inflammation
Dendritic cells provide what serve as ......
The bridge between innate and adaptive immunity
Dendritic cells are found in _______, antigen processing and antigen ____________
Dendritic cells provide what two major functions?
1. Initiate inflammatory response
2. Initiate adaptive immune response
The two defining characteristics of adaptive immunity are...
The second time that a pathogen elicits an adaptive immune response,the response will be...
Faster, stronger, better
And it will keep improving the more it sees the pathogen
The main component of adaptive immunity are _________ and their secreted products, such as __________
Specific immunity means...
The ability to distinguish b/w different, closely related microbes and molecules
Acquired immunity means...
That potent protective responses are acquired by experience
List 7 characteristics of adaptive immunity....
4. Clonal expansion
6. Contraction and homeostasis
7. Nonreactivity to self
Specificity ensures that distinct antigens ____________________
Elicit specific responses
Diversity of the adaptive immune system means that it can respond to _________________
A large variety of antigens
Memory leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposure to ____________
The same antigens
Clonal expansion in adaptive immunity increases the number of antigen-specific lymphocytes from __________
a small number of naive lymphocytes
Specialization generates responses that are optimal for ____________
Defense against different types of microbes
Contraction and homeostasis of adaptive immunity allows the immune system to respond to_____________
To newly encountered antigens
Nonreactivity to self in adaptive immunity prevents injustice to the host during _____________
Responses to foreign antigens
Humoral immunity involves ________ that neutralize and eradicate ____________ antigens
Humoral immunity involves B-cells or T-cells?
Cell-mediated immunity involves the eradication of _____________ antigens
Cell-mediated immunity involves B-cells or T-cells?
Describe innate Immunity specificity.
For molecules shared by groups of related microbes and molecules produced by damaged host cells
Describe the specificity of adaptive immunity
For microbial and nonmicrobial antigens
Describe the diversity of innate immunity
Limited, germline encoded
Describe the diversity of adaptive immunity
Very large; receptors are produced by somatic recombination of gene segments
Does "nonreactivity to self" describe innate or adaptive immunity?
List cellular and chemical barrier of innate immunity
Skin, mucosal epithelia, antimicrobial molecules
Describe cellular and chemical barriers of adaptive immunity
Lymphocytes in epithelial, antibodies secreted at epithelial surfaces
List blood proteins involved in innate immunity
Complement and others
Name a blood protein used in adaptive immunity
List cells involved in innate immunity
Phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages), natural killer cells