Primer To Immunology Flashcards Preview

HDM Midterm > Primer To Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primer To Immunology Deck (91):
1

Define immune system

A collection of cells,molecule, and tissues involved in an immune response

2

Define Immune responses

Responses we make against foreign macromolecules (defense)

3

Adaptive immunity

Response of antigen-specific lymphocytes to antigen includes MEMORY (protective)

4

Innate Immunity

Protection against antigens that relies on mechanisms that exist before exposure

5

List 4 roles of the immune system

1. Defense against infections
2. Defense against tumors
3. The immune system can injure cells and induce pathological inflammation
4. The immune system recognizes and responds to tissue grafts and newly introduced proteins

6

Discuss implications of the role of the immune system to defend against infections.

Deficient immunity would result in increased susceptibility. This is exemplified by AIDS.

Vaccination can boost immune defenses and protect against infections.

7

Discuss implications of the role of the immune system to defend against tumors.

There is potential for immunotherapy as an anti-cancer treatment.

8

Discuss implications of the immune system's role to injure cells and induce pathological inflammation.

Immune responses are the cause of allergic, autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases.

9

How could the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tissue grafts and newly introduced proteins pose problems in treating patients?

Immune responses are barriers to transplantation and gene therapy.

10

Define CD

CD (Cluster of differentiation): cell surface molecules expressed on various cell types designated by a CD number

They are used to define cell type, receptors, etc. Recognized by monoclonal Abs.

They define a population of cells and are measured to determine a problematic response.

11

Define Cytokines

Bioactive protein molecules that mediate immune responses

Interleukins (IL)
TNF
IFN-alpha, beta, gamma
TGF-beta
CSF

Autocrine, paracrine, exocrine actions, pleitropic

12

List 5 types of cytokines

Interleukins (IL)
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor)
IFN-a,B,y (Interferons-alpha, beta, gamma)
TGF-B (transforming growth factor)
CSF (Colony Stimulating Factor)

13

List two types of acquired or adaptive immunity

Passive & Active

14

List two types of Passive Adaptive Immunity

Artificial (IVIG)

& Natural (Maternal)

15

List two types of Active Adaptive Immunity

Artificial (Vaccine)

& Natural (Infection/exposure)

16

What is IVIG?

IVIG is an example of what type of immunity?

IVIG is the name for immunoglobulin therapy (a mixture of antibodies used to treat a number of health conditions like measles, HIV/AIDS, primary immunodeficiency)

Artificial Passive Adaptive Immunity

17

Immunity gained by an infant during pregnancy represents what type of immunity?

(Maternal) Natural Passive Adaptive Immunity

18

A Vaccine provides recipients with what type of immunity?

Artificial Active Adaptive Immunity

19

An infection or exposure would provide what type of immunity?

Natural Active Adaptive

20

Which type of immunity has a faster response: innate or adaptive?

How long does each take to be activated?

Innate

Innate will soon after infection, within hours

Adaptive Immunity takes days to be effective

21

Does active or passive immunity have both specificity and memory?

Active immunity has both specificity and memory.

Passive memory has specificity but not memory.

22

Briefly explain how passive immunity works when using IVIG

If you administer a serum of antibodies from an immune individual to an uninflected individual they will be protected from infection for a set period of time until the antibodies break down. Most proteins break down in 15-20 days.

23

Innate Immunity provides protection against infections that relies on mechanisms that exist _________ infection, are capable of _________ response to microbes, and react in essentially ______________ to repeat infections.

Before

Rapid

The same way

24

Innate immunity is normally _________ in absence of infection and is found in ________________ tissue.

Inactive

ANY vascularized

25

What type of immunity is not antigen specific (limited diversity)?

Innate Immunity is not antigen specific but recognizes structures shared by many microbes.

26

Innate Immunity has no immunologic __________ so it responds _____________ to every challenge.

Memory

The same way

27

Innate immune responses stimulate _________

The adaptive immune response

28

List 4 differentiated cells that come from CFU-GM cells (and Myeloid stem cells before that):

1. Monocyte/macrophage
2. Neutrophil
3. Eosinophil
4. Basophil


(Natural Killer cells, NK cells? Are these included?)

29

These cytokines are crucial in the development of Monocytes/macrophages...

IL-3
GM-CSF
M-CSF

30

These cytokines are crucial in the development of Neutrophils...

IL-3
GM-CSF
G-CSF

31

These cytokines are crucial in the development of Eosinophils...

IL-3
IL-5
GM-CSF

32

These cytokines are crucial in the development of Basophils...

IL-3
IL-4

33

Eosinophils differentiate in response to _____ and account for _____ of white blood cells.

IL-5

1-6%

34

Eosinophils survive in circulation for ______ hours and can survive in tissue for an additional _________ in the absenc of stimulation.

8-12 hours

8-12 days

35

Eosinophils are responsible for combatting __________________ and they play a major role in __________ diseases like their "sister" granulocytes.

Multi-cellular parasites

Atopic

36

Atopic is a synonym for _________

Allergic

37

Basophils is a circulatory cell with a ___________ cytoplasm that stains with _________ dye (colored _________).

Granulated

Basic

Blue

38

Basophils have a ____________ nucleus.

Bi-lobed

39

True or False: Basophils are phagocytic.

False, basophils are non-phagocytic and release of pharmacologically active substance contained within granules

40

How do basophils help fight against parasites?

Basophils release pharmacologically active substances contained within granules to fight parasites and can contribute to atopic disease.

41

Basophils that live in the tissue are called ___________

Mast cells

42

Two types of mast cells are...?

Tissue and Mucosal

43

Mast cells can be stimulated to __________ by direct ________, chemicals, alcohols, and certain antibiotics, cross-linking of IgE receptors or by activated C' proteins

Degranulate

Injury

44

Mast cells play a key role in ___________

And are also evident in _________

Inflammatory processes

Atopic responses

45

Mast cells granule content release includes...

C3a

Histamine
Pro teases
Heparin
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

46

Mast cells release membrane derived lid mediators such as...

Prostaglandins
Leukotriens
PAF (platelet activation factor)

47

Mast cells produce the following cytokines...

IL-1
IL-3
IL-4
IL-5
IL-6
IL-8
TNF

48

The CD marker for Mast cells is ________ and they have a high affinity for _________

CD23

FcER'

49

CD23 is a marker for ____________

Mast cells

50

Are natural killer cells involved with innate or adaptive immunity? What do they do specifically?

Both! In innate immunity, they recognize infected, stressed, or malignant cells and kill them. They release granzymes then performing activating enzymes that lead to apoptosis of the target cell.

In adaptive immunity, there is a principle mediator of ADCC (antibody dependent cellular cytoxicity), which is an activating receptor of IgG Fc.

51

Natural killer cells in innate immunity are activated by...

IL-12 (macrophages)
IL-15
Type I IFNs

52

Activated NKs secrete...

IFN-y
And IFN-y activates macrophages (?)

53

NKs are a principle mediator of _________ in adaptive immunity, activating receptor _______

ADCC (antibody dependent cellular cytoxity)

IgG Fc

54

CD markers for Natural Killer cells are _______ and ________.

CD16+
&
CD56+

55

List 3 types of phagocytes:

Neutrophils
Monocytes/macrophages
Dendritic cells

56

__________are circulating, short lived, rapid response, but don't provide prolonged defense

Neutrophils

57

Monocytes location= ?
Macrophage location = ?

In circulation

In tissue

58

Monocytes/macrophages provide a more or less prolonged response in comparison with neutrophils?

More prolonged

59

M1 is known as a _________macrophage, is induced by ___________ and plays a role in ___________

Classical

Innate Immunity

Inflammation

60

M2s are known as __________ macrophages and are induced by ______ and ________ and play a role in _________ and _____________

Alternative

IL-4 & IL-13

Tissue repair

Control of inflammation

61

Dendritic cells provide what serve as ......

The bridge between innate and adaptive immunity

62

Dendritic cells are found in _______, antigen processing and antigen ____________

All tissues

Presentation

63

Dendritic cells provide what two major functions?

1. Initiate inflammatory response
2. Initiate adaptive immune response

64

The two defining characteristics of adaptive immunity are...

Specificity
&
Memory

65

The second time that a pathogen elicits an adaptive immune response,the response will be...

Faster, stronger, better

And it will keep improving the more it sees the pathogen

66

The main component of adaptive immunity are _________ and their secreted products, such as __________

Lymphocytes

Antibodies

67

Specific immunity means...

The ability to distinguish b/w different, closely related microbes and molecules

68

Acquired immunity means...

That potent protective responses are acquired by experience

69

List 7 characteristics of adaptive immunity....

1. Specificity
2. Diversity
3. Memory
4. Clonal expansion
5. Specialization
6. Contraction and homeostasis
7. Nonreactivity to self

70

Specificity ensures that distinct antigens ____________________

Elicit specific responses

71

Diversity of the adaptive immune system means that it can respond to _________________

A large variety of antigens

72

Memory leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposure to ____________

The same antigens

73

Clonal expansion in adaptive immunity increases the number of antigen-specific lymphocytes from __________

a small number of naive lymphocytes

74

Specialization generates responses that are optimal for ____________

Defense against different types of microbes

75

Contraction and homeostasis of adaptive immunity allows the immune system to respond to_____________

To newly encountered antigens

76

Nonreactivity to self in adaptive immunity prevents injustice to the host during _____________

Responses to foreign antigens

77

Humoral immunity involves ________ that neutralize and eradicate ____________ antigens

Antibodies

Exogenous

78

Humoral immunity involves B-cells or T-cells?

B-cells

79

Cell-mediated immunity involves the eradication of _____________ antigens

Endogenous

80

Cell-mediated immunity involves B-cells or T-cells?

T-cells

81

Describe innate Immunity specificity.

For molecules shared by groups of related microbes and molecules produced by damaged host cells

82

Describe the specificity of adaptive immunity

For microbial and nonmicrobial antigens

83

Describe the diversity of innate immunity

Limited, germline encoded

84

Describe the diversity of adaptive immunity

Very large; receptors are produced by somatic recombination of gene segments

85

Does "nonreactivity to self" describe innate or adaptive immunity?

Both

86

List cellular and chemical barrier of innate immunity

Skin, mucosal epithelia, antimicrobial molecules

87

Describe cellular and chemical barriers of adaptive immunity

Lymphocytes in epithelial, antibodies secreted at epithelial surfaces

88

List blood proteins involved in innate immunity

Complement and others

89

Name a blood protein used in adaptive immunity

Antibodies

90

List cells involved in innate immunity

Phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages), natural killer cells

91

Name a key cell involved in adaptive immunity

Lymphocytes