Flashcards in Intro to Philosophy Quiz Deck (31)
Why do we study philosophy #1
We don’t ask big questions
Why do we study philosophy #2
We are vulnerable to errors of common sense
Why do we study philosophy #3
We are mentally confused
We have muddled ideas about what makes us happy
We panic and lose perspective
Branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of reality
Ie. what does it mean to exist?
How are things similar and different?
A branch of philosophy that deals with theories of knowledge
Ie. how can we prove to know something?
How do we know when a belief is justified?
A branch of philosophy that deals with defining right and wrong behaviour
Ie. what is “right” and “wrong” behaviour?
What is the nature of good and evil?
Social and political philosophy
A branch of philosophy that deals with the role of the individual and government in society
Ie. what should the rights of the individual be?
How should governments function?
Branch that deals with the origin and evolution of the universe
Ie. what is the origin of the universe?
What is the purpose of the universe?
Branch that deals with the nature of God and the divine
Ie. what is the nature of God?
What does God deem to be good and evil?
Branch that deals with the nature of beauty
Ie. what is the nature of beauty
How does one determine good art?
A claim that is the basis of an argument (meant to justify a conclusion)
The process of making a conclusion from the given premises (conclusion is inferred from premises, therefore argument is valid)
From Greek “propositions considered together”
General premises —> specific premises (conclusion should be certain or valid)
Specific information —> general statements (arguments should be strong, but cannot be considered true or sound)
When the premises are logically connected to the conclusion
When an argument is true and the form is valid
Prospered through agricultural surplus and wealth from trade = more leisure time to think and debate = pre-Socratic philosophers
Pre-Socratic philosophers: Theocentric vs rational ??
First philosopher ?
Thales of Miletus
- all matter created from water since it existed in solid, liquid, and air form
Anaximines if Miletus
- all matter created from air
-all water is condensed air and air created earth and fire
Heraclitus of Ephesus
- world is characterized by opposites
- world was in constant flux and change
- sensory perceptions are reliable
Empedocles of Akragas
- matter = earth wind water and fire
Anaximander of Miletus
- all things from the infinite
- all matter and nature ruled by laws
- existence of multiple worlds
c2 = a2 + b2
Metempsychosis- transmigration of souls (immortal and entered new bodies after death)
Charged money for education
Man can answer all question
Relied on rhetoric (art of persuasive speaking or writing)
Best argument = most persuasive
Persuasiveness sometimes values over truth
It is impossible to create a heap of sand or a crowd of people because adding one won’t achieve that
—> heap and crowd are vague terms
—> solve by defining what a heap or crowd is