Intro To The Immune System Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals Of Immunology > Intro To The Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro To The Immune System Deck (23):

What is the most important physiological function of the immune system?

Prevent infections and eradicate established infections


What antigens do B lymphocytes recognize and what are their effector functions? Are they adaptive or innate?

B lymphocytes: recognizes microbe

effector functions: 1) neutralize the microbe, 2) phagocytosis, and 3) complement activation, job is to make antibodies once activated



What antigens do helper T lymphocytes recognize and what is their effector function? Are they adaptive or innate?

Helper t: recognizes microbial antigens presented by antigen-presenting cell

effector function: 1) activation of macrophages, 2) inflammation (cytokines), and 3) activation (proliferation and differentiation) of t and b lymphocytes, their job is to tell other cells what they should do and how they should do it



What antigens do cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize and what is their effector function? Are they adaptive or innate?

CTLs recognize infected cells expressing microbial antigens

Effector function: kill the infected cell

Their job is to seek out infected cells and kill them, ALWAYS own cells, never microbe cells. Recognizes if there is something wrong with the cell and kills it



What antigens do regulatory T lymphocytes recognize and what is their effector function? Are they adaptive or innate?

Don't recognize antigens, their effector function is to suppress the immune system, job is to make sure IS doesn't get out of hand, like the breaks on a car



What antigens do Natural Killer cells recognize and what is their effector function? Adaptive or innate?

Innate cells so they don't recognize antigens

Effector function: kill infected cells, they work with cytotoxic T lymphocytes, supplement CD8s


What is the general purpose of the lymphoid system? What would happen if there were no lymph system?

Tissues and organs that bring B and T cells in contact with antigens, brings them to same place same time

If no lymph system, adaptive response wouldn't work as well b/c things move too fast in circulatory system for them to come and stay in contact


What does the lymph system include?

Lymphatic vessels
Primary (generative) lymphoid organs
Secondary (peripheral) lymphoid organs


Explain the B and T cell maturation cycle.
Where do B cells mature? T cells?

B lymphocyte: common lymphoid precursor--> bone marrow--immature B lymphocytes-->blood/lymph-- mature B lymphocytes--> circulate between blood, lymph, peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal and cutaneous lymphoid tissue)

T lymphocyte: common precursor--> thymus--(mature but naive)--> blood/lymph --(mature)--> circulate like B lymphocyte

B cell=bone marrow mature
T cell= starts in bone marrow as well, but matures in thymus


What happens to most b and T cells?

Most never encounter their antigen or activate and they die, but we keep producing more and maintain the army


Where are B cells found in lymph nodes?
What happens in the germinal center?
Where are T cells found?
Where does b and T cell communication take place?
What is in the medulla of the lymph node?
Where do lymphocytes enter the node?
How do antigens get in and out?

B cells are found in the follicles of the lymph node.
Germinal center: active B cell proliferation (surrounded by follicle)
T cells are found in the paracortex, which surrounds the follicles
B and T cell communication takes place in the interface between the paracortex and follicle
Macrophages are in the medulla (middle area)
They enter via the high endothelial venue.
Antigens get in and out via afferent and efferent vessels


Where do blood infections go?
Where do tissue infections go?

Blood infection to spleen (spleen has no lymph drainage, it is just a blood filter)
Tissue infection to lymph node


What happens in red pulp of spleen?
In white pulp?
What region is the B cell zone?
T cell zone?

Red pulp filters RBCs
White pulp deals with WBCs and is spotted with mini lymph nodes
B cell zone is the FOLLICLE
T cell zone is PALS (periarteriolar lymphoid sheath)


Where is the greatest percent of immune tissue in the body? Where are these?

Mucosal-associated immune tissues (found under all mucosal tissue): digestive, respiratory, Spleen


What are the three types of lymph tissue?

Lymph node


Explain peyer's patches and where b and T cells are found in them.

Peyer's patches drain to mesenteric lymph node
They contain follicles (b cell zone) and T cell zone, and M cells


What are M cells? (Pertaining to Mucosal-associated lymph). What do dendritic cells do in this part of the lymph system?

M cells are the gateway that allows things to pass through the mucosal epithelium layer and get into underlying tissue
Dendritic cells squirt through and grab onto things

Note: some nasty pathogens target m cells to gain access to the body


Briefly explain the phases of immune response

1) 0 days: antigen recognition and innate response
2) 1 day: adaptive is activated and begins to build army (don't see response till further along) naive T (via antigen presenting cell) and B cells (via microbe) are activated
3) 1-7: clonal expansion and differentiation (lymph nodes swell as army is built), by day 7 have effector cells army ready
4) 7-14: antigen elimination via humoral and cell-mediated immunity
5) 14+: contraction (homeostasis) where majority of t and B cells apoptose and memory (memory cells remain)
Remember: immunity does NOT go back to baseline b/c of memory immunity

At 7-10 start noticing response


When would one notice serum sickness and why?

7-10 days after administration of antivenom because it is the adaptive response that reacts to the foreign antibodies


Primary bs secondary immune response?

Primary: have no immunity, slower and weaker than secondary response, have memory cells after primary response

Secondary: faster and stronger than primary response because already have memory and adaptive response remembers what it has seen before, our antibodies get a little better each time we see the same antigens


When everything works...? (4 things)

Protected against pathogens
Can fight off infection
Cancer cells are destroyed
Recognize and ignore harmless antigens (self and pollen or mutualistic organisms)


What can happen when things go wrong?

Overly aggressive response
Chronic inflammation: lead to tissue and nerve damage

Responding when it shouldn't
Transplant rejection
Not responding when it should


What are hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, and transplant rejection?

Hypersensitivity: responding to harmless antigens (allergies)

Autoimmunity: responding to self antigens (usu genetic predisposition/environmental link)

Transplant rejection: not identical, treated as foreign