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Microbiology Exam 5 > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (130):
1

What are the 5 classes of CNS infectious diseases

1. meningitis
2. Encephalitis
3. Mass Lesions
4. Neurotoxemia-Tetnus
5. Prion

2

What are the classes of PNS diseases

1. Neurotoxemia-botulism
2. Leprosy
3. Guillain-Barre' Syndrome

3

What is menigitis

meningeal inflammation resulting from an infection of the subarachnoid space

4

what is encephalitis

inflammation of the brain parychema

5

what is mass lesion/abcess

macroscopic in size and of sufficient mass to press against normal brain tissue which increases ICP and causes focal seizures

6

what does the CT show in mass lesion/abcess cases

ring-enhancing (mass) lesion which is used for dx

7

what is leprosy

infection of the sensory nerves

8

what is Guillain-Barre' Syndrome

demylenation of PNS

9

what is botulism

toxin that inhibits nerves at NM junction

10

what are the two types of prion disease

new variant CJD -prion of bovine spongiform encephalitis
CJD-Human prions

11

what class of organism causes the most amount of meningitis

viruses

12

what class of organism causes the 2nd most amount of meningitis?

bacteria

13

what disease simulates S&S of meningitis but it is a neurotoxemia

tetnus

14

Focal encephalitis is caused by primarily?

HSV-1 which is treatable with antiviral

15

Diffused encephalitis is caused by primarily?

arbovirus

16

what is encephomyelitis

inflammation of brain parenchyma with inflammation of the spinal cord

17

what is encephomyelitis majorily caused by

poliovirus and West Nile virus

18

What are the slow virus encephalitis diseases

HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor complex
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
subacute, sclerosing panencephalopathy

19

what are the etiologic agents that cause abcesses

s. aureus, anaerobes

20

what causes neurocysticerosis

taenia solium

21

what causes toxoplasmosis

toxoplasma gondii

22

what are the common causes of purulent/pyogenic meningitis which often results in severe disease? (age-dependent) (7)

1. Neisseria meningitidis
2. S. pneumoniae
3. Hib
4. S. agalactiae
5. E. Coli K1
6. Klebsiella pneumoniae
7. listeria monocytogenes

23

Common causes of bacterial encephalitis &/or mass leisions (4)

1. mycoplasma pneumoniae
2. listeria monocytogenes
3. s. aureas
4. anaerobic infections

24

Common causes of Neurotoxic diseases (2)

Clostridium Botulism
C. tetani

25

Common causes Aseptic meningitis (age-dependent) (8)

1. HHV 6/7
2. non-polio enteroviruses
3. arbovirus
4. HSV-2
5. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM)
6. HIV (only in sex/ IVDU)
7. Mumps virus (vaccine)
8. Polio (vaccine)

26

what age does aseptic HHV 6/7 meningitis occur in

infants and children less that 2

27

what age does aseptic non-polio enterovirus meningitis occur in

more common in children, but severe in adults

28

what are examples of non-polio enterovirus

ECHO
Coxsackie
Enterovirus 68-71

29

what age does aseptic arbvirus meningitis occur in

infect children and other adults

30

what age does aseptic LCM virus meningitis occur in

either children (rodents as pets) or adults (dust eating virus)

31

Who gets aseptic HIV meningitis

sexual activity and IVDU

32

who gets aseptic mumps meningitis

adolescents who do not get immunized

33

who gets aseptic polio meningitis

infants- young adults who do not get immunized

34

viral encephalitis etiology (9)

1. HSV-1
2. arbovirus
3. rabies
4. polio
5. non-polio enterovirus
6. HIV
7. JC virus
8. Measles
9. VZV & CMV

35

What is the most common cause of epidemic diffuse encephalitis and in what time of year does it occur

arbovirus
summer/fall months

36

what are the different types of arbovirus (7)

EEEV
WEEV
SLEV
La Cross virus
WNEV
POWV
Coltiviruses

37

etiology of focal encephalitis

1. HSV-1 (year round)
2. arbovirus and the non-polio enterovirus
3. Rabies Virus
4. polio and WNEV ( encephalomyelitis)
5. CMV
6. VZV
7. JC (John Cunningham) virus and PML

38

common fungi agents in CNS diseases?

Cryptococcus- a meningoencephalitis
Candida- meningitis
Coccidioides immitis- a meningoencephalitis

39

Agents that can affect a person with humoral diffeciency

1. s. pneumoniae
2. s. agalactiae
3. Hib
4. N. meningitidis
5. E. Coli K1
6. K. pneumoniae

40

Agents that can affect a person with Cell-mediated deficiency

1. listeria monocytogenes
2. Toxoplasma gondii
3. cryptococcus neoformans
4. CMV
5. JC virus and PML
6.HIV
7. LCMV
8. E. Coli K1?

41

Why is diagnosing Infectious diseases in elderly patients difficult?

1. hypothermic so don't present with fever
2. neck arthritis so already manifest with nuchal ridgidity
3. dementia can masks

42

How should you approach a newborn with fever

lumbar puncture

43

Nosocomial related infectious diseases

IVC
cochlear implants

44

bacteria carraige in nasopharynx and humans are only host

s. peumoniae
Hib
N. menegitidis
s. agalactiae (also vagina, GIT, skin)

45

bacteria carriage in nares

s. aureus

46

bacteria carriage in humans mostly on mucosal surfaces

endogenous anaerobic flora

47

bacterial carriage in humans mostly in colon

s. agalactiae
E. coli
K. pneumoniae
Listeria monocytogenes

48

bacterial carriage in humans mostly in colon with migration to vagina

s. agalactiae
e. coli
k. pneumoniae

49

Animals and humans are reservoir for which bacteria:

E. coli K1
K. pneumoniae
L. monocytogenes
M. leprae
S. agalactiae
S. aureus (humans mostly source of infection)

50

Reservoir for c. tetani

soil

51

reservoir for c. botulinum

soil, water, animal

52

reservoir for L. moncytogenes

everywhere

53

Viral Zoonosis

Arbovirus- animals and arthropods
Rabies- mammals
LCMV- mammals esp. rodents

54

humans are sole reservoir for which viruses

enterovirus
measles
herpes virus
HIV
JC and BK viruses
mumps

55

what is the reservoir for cryptococcus neoformans

soil and bird

56

what is the reservoir for toxoplasma gondii

aminal

57

what is the reservoir for taenia solium

pig an human

58

what is the reservoir for naegleria fowleri

warm water

59

what is arbovirus Mode of Transmission (MOT)

animals and arthropods

60

what is rabies MOT

bat , racoon, skunk, and Dog

61

what is LCMV MOT

rodent

62

what agents have MOT of through tainted food

BOvine spongiform encephalopathy prion
Taenia solium ( not directly to CNS)
toxoplasma gondii

63

Fecal-Oral MOT

taenia solium
Tocoplasma gondii
enterovirus
listeria
LCMV

64

in-utero transmission

s. agalactiae
listeria (more common)
non-polio enterovirus
LCMV
Toxoplasma
rubella
CMV (more common)
HSV (more common)

65

Parturition transmission

s. agalactiae (more common)
listeria monocytogenes
E. Coli
K. pneumoniae
HSV/CMV

66

inhalation of dust transmission

cryptococcus neoformans
LCMV

67

CNS infectious diseases agents that cause close contact outbreaks

hib
meningococcus
Non-polio enterovirus
T. solum

68

Predisposing factor of anaerobes

endogenous flora

69

Predisposing factor of arbovirus

exposure to mosquitoes; ticks

70

Predisposing factor of cryptococcus neoformans

bird droppings

71

Predisposing factor of HSV-1

reactivation of latent infection

72

Predisposing factor of HSV-2

sexual contact

73

Predisposing factor of HIV

blood/ sex

74

Predisposing factor of LCMV

rodents, droppings secretions and fluids

75

Predisposing factor of listeria monocytogenes

animals, food

76

Predisposing factor of Measles-SSPE

humans exposure before 1yo

77

Predisposing factor of mycobacterium leprae

animals and humans

78

Predisposing factor of mycobacterium tuberculosis

human exposure

79

Predisposing factor of N. meningitis

human exposure, terminal complement deficiency

80

Predisposing factor of non-polio enterovirus

human feces

81

Predisposing factor of naegleria fowleri

fresh water with algae

82

Predisposing factor of polio entervirus

human feces

83

Predisposing factor of rabies

amimal exposure

84

Predisposing factor of s. aureus

another person

85

Predisposing factor of s. agalactiae

LBW, membrane rupture membrane >1 day before delivery vaginal colonization

86

Predisposing factor of s. pneumoniae

congenital csf leak

87

Predisposing factor of t. solium ova

human feces

88

Predisposing factor of t. solium cysticerci

undercooked pork

89

Predisposing factor of toxoplasma oca

cat feces

90

Predisposing factor of toxoplasma pseudocyst

uncooked meat

91

bacteria with year round seasonality

s. agalactiae
e. coli k1
k. pneumoniae

92

bacteria with summer seasonality

listeria

93

bacteria with late winter-early spring seasonality

Hib
n. meningitidis
s. pneumoniae

94

virus with year round seasonality

Herpes (including CMV)
HIV
Rabies

95

virus with late summer early fall seasonality

ECHO and Coxsackie virus
Polio virus
arbovirus

96

virus with winter seasonality

LCMV

97

most common causes of congenital infections

TORCH
Toxplasma
Rubella
CMV
HSV 1, 2

98

what is the leading cause of infection and morbidity in the neonate

CMV

99

bacterial agent by age: neonate

1. s. agalactiae
2. E. Coli K1
3. L. monocytogenes
4. K pneumoniae

100

bacterial agent by age: infant to adult

1. n. menegitides
2. s. pneumoniae

101

bacterial agent by age: elderly

1. n. menigitides
2. s. pneumoniae
3. listeria monocytogenes

102

agents that have intra-axonal transport inside nerves

rabies
herpes
polio
tetnus toxin

103

signs and symptoms of any neonatal meningitis

fever
lethergy
poor feeding
gi disturbances
resp. abnormalities
cardiac abnormalities
bulging fontanelle

104

signs and symptoms of any meningitis > 2yo

irritability
lethargy
fever
rash
progressive of symptoms which can show progression to meningoencephalitis

105

5 different signs of meningeal inflammation

Nuchal ridity
Kernig sign
Brudzinski sign
Opisthotonos
Hoyne Sign (Amoss, Tripod position)

106

agents that cause a maculopapular rash

non-polio enterovirus
arbovirus
HSV
s. pneumoniae
N. meningitides
Hib

107

agents that cause a vesicular rash

HSV
fungi
non-polio enterovirus

108

agents that cause a petechial/purpuric rash

s. pneumoniae
n. meningitides
Hib

109

what is encephalopathy

altered consciousness lasting >24hrs

110

Encephalitis is encephalopathy plus 2 or more of the following symptons

fever
seizures
altered mental status
severe headache
focal neurologic indins
CSF pleocytosis
abnormal neuroimaging

111

signs and symptoms specifically for neonate sepsis or encephalitis include

same as meningitis:
fever
lethargy
poor feeding
gi disturbances
cardiac abnormalities
Resp. abnormalities
Bulging fontanelle

112

signs and symptoms of a mass lesion

fever
headaches
seizures- focal or tonic-clonic
focal signs
altered mental status

113

what three syndromes are considered floppy (hypotonic) paralysis

Gullain-Barre' Syndrome
Botulism
Polio virus- kills neurons

114

what syndrome is considered spastic (hypertonic) paralysis

tetanus

115

treatment for c. tetenaii

metronidazole

116

treatment for e. coli

metronidazole

117

treatment for hib

cetriaxone, cefotaxime, or TMP-SMX

118

Treatment for listeria

ampicillin plus gentamycin or TMP-SMX

119

treatment for k. pneumoniae

ampicillin plus gentamycin or TMP-SMX

120

tx for m. leprae

dapsone plus rifampin or clofazimine

121

tx for n. meningitidis

ceftriaxone or ceftaxomine

122

tx for s. pneumoniae

vancomycin plus extend spectrum cephalosporin

123

tx for s. agalactiae

Penicillin G

124

tx forToxoplasma gondii

sulfonamides or clindamycin plus pyrimethamine

125

tx forcryptococcus neoformans

amphotericine B with 5-fluorocytosine

126

tx for HSV

acyclovir

127

tx for non polio enterovirus

pleconaril

128

tx for Naegleria fowleri

miltefosine

129

tx for Neurocysticercosis

niclosamide, praziquantel, albendazole

130

which CNS agents do vaccines exist for:

s. pneumoniae
Hib
n. meningitides
polio
rabies
botulism
tetanus
measles
mumps