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Pharmacology Test #1 > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (40)
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1
Q

Stages in drug development

A
  1. In vitro studies
  2. Animal testing
  3. Clinical testing
  4. New Drug Application
  5. Marketing
2
Q

Hypericum perforatum

A

St. John’s Wort

clinical studies show efficacy

3
Q

perennial weed used to treat mild/moderate depression

A

St. John’s Wort

4
Q

Active ingredients in St. John’s Wort

A

hyperforin, hypericin

5
Q

What should you be aware of when taking St. John’s Wort?

A

photosensitivity

reduces efficacy of some drugs (oral contraceptives)

6
Q

What does St. John’s Wort induce?

A

CYP3A4, 2C9, P-gp

7
Q

What is Echinacea used for?

A

for the common cold and flu

8
Q

Who should not take Echinacea?

A

children, patients taking immunosuppressants, with immunodeficiency or autoimmune diseases

9
Q

Active constituents of Echinacea?

A

polysaccharides, chicoric acid, alkamides

10
Q

Side effects of Echinacea?

A

GI upset, headache

don’t take for longer than 10 days

11
Q

What is Ginkgo proven to treat?

A

peripheral vascular disease

12
Q

What is Ginkgo unproven to prevent?

A

cognitive impairment or dementia

13
Q

Active ingredients in Ginkgo?

A

flavone glycosides; terpenoids

antioxidants; antagonize platelet activating factor; increase NO release

14
Q

Adverse effects of Ginkgo?

A

headache, GI upset, some bleeding
Shouldn’t be used with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs
Shouldn’t be used by epileptics

15
Q

Ginseng is used for?

A

Some evidence for preventing colds, cancer, and reducing postprandial blood glucose levels

16
Q

How does ginseng work?

A

stimulates immune system and antiplatelet activity

17
Q

What does ginseng contain?

A

triterpenoids (ginsenosides) and methylxanthines (caffeine-like effect)

18
Q

Considerations with ginseng?

A

shouldn’t be used with antipsychotics, estrogens, hypoglycemics, or anticoagulants

19
Q

Allium sativum

A

garlic

20
Q

Garlic might be able to do what?

A

may reduce incidence of some cancers

not proven to reduce LDL cholesterol

21
Q

Actions of garlic

A

antiplatelet
fibrinolytic
antioxidant

22
Q

What does garlic contain?

A

organosulfur compounds including allicin (scavenges for radicals)

23
Q

Do not take garlic with what?

A

anticoagulants

24
Q

Silybum marianum

A

Milk Thistle

25
Q

No clear evidence that milk thistle does what?

A

no clear evidence for prevention of alcoholic liver cirrhosis or other hepatotoxicities

26
Q

What herbal remedy is reported to reduce leukotriene formation and reduce leukocyte migration?

A

Milk Thistle

27
Q

Relief of post menopausal symptoms

A

“phytoestrogens”
red clover
soy bean

28
Q

Serenoa repens

A

saw palmetto

29
Q

What does saw palmetto have no evidence of doing?

A

no clear evidence for improvement of symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy

30
Q

Active ingredient in saw palmetto does what?

A

constituent phytosterols inhibit 5alpha reductase in vitro

31
Q

Beneficial effects of high doses (10X MDR) vitamin C

A

immunostimulant, antioxidants, regular supplementation reduces the duration of colts

32
Q

high doses of which vitamin is dangerous?

A

vitamin E
increased death with 400IU
safe up to 130 IU/day
MDR 30 IU/day

33
Q

Coenzyme Q 10

A

Ubiquinone

34
Q

Electron carrier in mitochondria of all tissues, highest in heart, some in brain, decreases with age

A

Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone

35
Q

Coenzyme Q10 is used for what

A

therapy of mitochondrial diseases

some benefit in ischemic heart disease

36
Q

familial defect in Q10 synthesis, ataxia and decreased growth

A

Leigh’s encephalomyopathy

37
Q

Increased bleeding in patients taking warfarin with which two supplements?

A

Coenzyme Q10
Glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate
melatonin

38
Q

Ramelteon

A

melatonin analog, Rx drug

39
Q

considerations when taking melatonin?

A

drowsiness and ataxia, synergistic with alcotol

40
Q

dietary supplements for osteoarthritis

A

glucosamine

chondroitin sulfate