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What is pharmacology?

-study of drugs- what they are,how they work and what they do
-study manner in which th function of living tissues and organs is modified by chemical substances


What is pharmacodynamnics?

What a drug does to the body (biological effects and mechanisms of action)


What is pharmacokinetics?

What the body does to a drug (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs and their metabolites


What is a drug?

Any single synthetic, or natural, substance of known structure used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease
-MORE BROADLY- everyday substances (caffeine , nicotine and alcohol )
-and illicit substances ( cocaine)


What is a medicine?

A chemical preparation containing one, or more, drugs used with the intention of causing a therapeutic effect. Medicines usually include agents additional to the active drug


What does a drug need to be useful as a therapeutic agent?

A degree of selectivity


What results in selectivity of drugs binding?

-the chemical structure of drug (binding site specificity)
-the target recognising only ligands of a precise structure (ligand specificity)


Name some drug targets in the body.

-carrier molecules
-ion channels


What is an agonist?

a drug that binds to a receptor to produce a cellular response i.e adrenaline


What is a antagonist ?

A drug that blocks the actions of an agonist by binding to the same receptor i.e B-blockers


What is the affinity of an agonist?

The strength of association between ligand and receptor


What is the efficacy of an angonist?

The ability to evoke a cellular response


What does antagonists lack?



What is the relationship between agonist and receptor occupancy?

Hyperbolic relationship- saturation when all receptors are occupied


What is the relationship between agonist concentration and the response on a linear graph?

-hyperbolic relationship


What is EC50?

The concentration of agonist that elicits a half maximal response


What is the most effective plot when calculating EC50?

- semi-logarithmic plot is more effective plot than linear as EC50 is more easily identified


What is the relationship between agonist concentration and the response on a semi-logarithmic graph?



What is a high potency?

The ability to evoke a maximal response at a low level of concentration. A low potency evokes the same response at a high concentration


What sites does an agonist and an antagonist bind to?

-agonists binds to orthosteric
-antagonist binds to separate allosteric site


Is an antagonist competitive or not?

not competitive


Provide a description of the effect of a competitive, or non-competitive, antagonist upon the concentration response curve for an agonist acting at the same population of receptors

Competitive antagonists cause a parallel rightward shift of the agonist concentration response curve with no depression of the maximal response. Non-competitive antagonists depress the slope and maximum of the concentration response curve, but do not cause a rightward shift