Flashcards in Introduction Deck (22)
What is pharmacology?
-study of drugs- what they are,how they work and what they do
-study manner in which th function of living tissues and organs is modified by chemical substances
What is pharmacodynamnics?
What a drug does to the body (biological effects and mechanisms of action)
What is pharmacokinetics?
What the body does to a drug (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs and their metabolites
What is a drug?
Any single synthetic, or natural, substance of known structure used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease
-MORE BROADLY- everyday substances (caffeine , nicotine and alcohol )
-and illicit substances ( cocaine)
What is a medicine?
A chemical preparation containing one, or more, drugs used with the intention of causing a therapeutic effect. Medicines usually include agents additional to the active drug
What does a drug need to be useful as a therapeutic agent?
A degree of selectivity
What results in selectivity of drugs binding?
-the chemical structure of drug (binding site specificity)
-the target recognising only ligands of a precise structure (ligand specificity)
Name some drug targets in the body.
What is an agonist?
a drug that binds to a receptor to produce a cellular response i.e adrenaline
What is a antagonist ?
A drug that blocks the actions of an agonist by binding to the same receptor i.e B-blockers
What is the affinity of an agonist?
The strength of association between ligand and receptor
What is the efficacy of an angonist?
The ability to evoke a cellular response
What does antagonists lack?
What is the relationship between agonist and receptor occupancy?
Hyperbolic relationship- saturation when all receptors are occupied
What is the relationship between agonist concentration and the response on a linear graph?
What is EC50?
The concentration of agonist that elicits a half maximal response
What is the most effective plot when calculating EC50?
- semi-logarithmic plot is more effective plot than linear as EC50 is more easily identified
What is the relationship between agonist concentration and the response on a semi-logarithmic graph?
What is a high potency?
The ability to evoke a maximal response at a low level of concentration. A low potency evokes the same response at a high concentration
What sites does an agonist and an antagonist bind to?
-agonists binds to orthosteric
-antagonist binds to separate allosteric site
Is an antagonist competitive or not?