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Broadcast Workflow > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (60):
1

Define a broadcast workflow.

It is a workflow which ensures that critical business processes can be implemented, tracked and optimised over time.

2

Workflows are used to orchestrate the interactions of which workplace resources.

Storage

Transcoding

Network

People

3

What are photosites?

Photosites (photo/photon sensing site) are "pixels" on the camera sensor.

4

What is the purpose of a debayering / demosaicing algorithm?

To reconstruct a full colour image from the incomplete colour samples which are output from an image sensor overlaid with a Colour Filter Array (CFA).

5

What is a CFA?

A Colour Filter Array is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the photosites of an image sensor to capture color information.

 

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6

What does the REC 709 standard define?

REC 709 defines the High Definition (HD) colour space and formatting.

7

What does the REC 2020 standard define?

REC 2020 defines the standard for Ultra High Definition (UHD) television with a standard dynamic range.

8

What does the REC 2100 standard define?

The REC 2100 standard defines High Dynamic Range (HDR) for both High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD).

9

What is ProRes 422?

ProRes 422 is an Apple lossy video compression (Codec) which is able to support up to 8K.

10

What is DNxHD?

Avid DNxHD is a lossy video compression (Codec) which will support up to 4K and the REC 2020 colour space.

11

What is NLE?

Non-Linear Editing (NLE) is is a form of audio, video or image editing where the original content is not modified in the course of editing (Non-destructive) – instead the edits are specified and modified by specialized software.

12

What is XAVC?

XAVC is a professional recording format / codec.​

13

What wrapper / container does XAVC typically use?

XAVC typically uses the .MXF (Material eXchange Format) container.

14

What audio does XAVC use?

XAVC uses Linear Pulse Code Modulated (LPCM) audio.

15

What resolution can XAVC support?

XAVC supports up to 4K resolution.

16

What bit depth does XAVC support?

XAVC supports 8 bit, 10 bit and 12 bit depth.

17

What colour sampling can XAVC support?

XAVC can support 4:2:0, 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 colour sampling.

18

What is XAVC S?

XAVC S is a prosumer recording format / codec.

19

What wrapper / container does XAVC S typically use?

XAVC S uses the .MP4 container.

20

What audio does XAVC S use?

XAVC S uses Linear Pulse Code Modulated (LPCM) audio.

21

What bit depth does XAVC S support?

XAVC S only supports 8 bit depth.

22

What resolution can XAVC S support?

XAVC S supports up to 4K resolution.

23

What colour sampling can XAVC S support?

XAVC S only supports 4:2:0 colour sampling.

24

What is the purpose of a Wrapper / Container?

  • Wrappers contain video, audio and metadata (such as timecode or subtitles).
  • Different wrappers / containers are able to hold different codecs.

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25

What is an Essence?

An essence-only format is defined as basic A/V or graphic data, compressed or not. For example, JPEG data is graphic essence and PCM (Pulse-Code Modulation) audio is raw audio essence.

26

What is .mov?

Quicktimes proprietary wrapper / container.

27

What is .mpg?

The MPEG wrapper / container.

28

Which essences do Panasonic cameras produce?

  • DV
  • DVCPRO 50
  • DVCPRO HD
  • These essences can be encapsulated within a .MXF (Media eXchange Format) wrapper.

29

What are the steps of a typical News Production Workflow?

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30

What are the main contribution sources?

  • Dedicated links.
  • Satellite connections.
  • IP-based connections (High/low resolution).

31

What are the secondary contribution sources?

  • Archive.
  • Other News Agencies.
  • Stock Footage.
  • Internet sources (i.e. youtube).

32

What storage mediums are used?

  • Tape.
  • Hard drives (disk).
  • Solid State Drives (SSDs).
  • Mobiles / Handheld Devices.

33

What methods of distribution are available?

  • Terrestrial
  • Satellite
  • Cable
  • Web (Both Live streams and VoD (Video on Demand))
  • Mobile

34

What is IMF?

Interoperable Master Format (IMF) is a SMPTE standard for providing a single interchangeable master file format and structure for the distribution of media between organisations.

  • Uses a .MXF (Media eXchange Format) wrapper
  • Has a versioning hierarchy format (AS-02)

 

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35

What are the key aspects for contribution?

  • Picture Quality.
  • Latency (less important in distribution).
  • Synchronisation.
  • Encryption.

36

What are the tolerances for audiovisual syncrhonisation?

  • -5 milliseconds to +15 milliseconds are tolerable for lip sync in a production context.
  • -5 milliseconds to +30 milliseconds are tolerable in a contribution context.

37

What media encryption is used in a broadcast workflow?

  • In contribution there is very little standards available for encryption.
  • In distribution there are a wide array of encryptions available in addition to entitlement schemes.
  • Entitlement schemes only allow conditional access to media for users which meet certain defined criteria.

38

What are the different types of quality grading for media?

  1. Contribution quality
  2. Broadcast Quality
  3. Good Quality
  4. Acceptable Quality
  5. Mobile Phone Quality

39

What is Contrubition Quality equivalent to?

Contribution Quality is equivalent to uncompressed / very mildly compressed source material.

40

What frame rate must Contribution Quality be at?

Contribution Quality must be at full frame rate.

41

What colour sampling is usually associated with Contribution Quality?

Contribution Quality usually uses 4:2:2 chroma sub-sampling.

42

 What is Broadcast Quality media equivalent to?

Broadcast Quality media is equivalent to satellite, terrestrial and cable broadcast.

43

What frame rate does Broadcast Quality media use?

Broadcast Quality media uses full frame rate but of slightly lower quality than contribution quality.

44

When would Good quality media be used?

Good Quality media is commercially acceptable but only used as a last resort or for fast news responses.

45

What frame rate is required for Good Quality?

Good Quality media does not necessarily use full frame rate.

46

In what context can Acceptable Quality media be used?

Acceptable Quality media is commercially acceptable for low data rate applications.

47

What is a URI?

A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is used to identify an abstract or physical resource.

48

What is used to identify an abstract or physical resource?

A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).

49

What is a URL?

  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a subset of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)
  • This identifies a resources location through its "access mechanism" (such as a network location.

50

Which subset of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) identifies a resources location through its "access mechanism" (such as a network location)?

Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

51

What is a URN?

Uniform Resource Name (URN) is a subset of Uniform Resourse Identifiers (URIs) which identifies an item by its name.

52

Which subset of Uniform Resourse Identifiers (URIs) is used to identify an item by it's name.

Uniform Resource Name (URN).

53

What are "pixels" on the camera sensor reffered to as?

Pixels on the camera sensor are known as photosites.

54

What is used to reconstruct a full colour image from the incomplete colour samples which are output from an image sensor overlaid with a Colour Filter Array (CFA)?

debayering / demosaicing algorithm.

55

What is the mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the photosites of an image sensor called?

 

A Colour Filter Array.

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56

What standard defines the High Definition (HD) colour space and formatting?

The REC 709 standard.

57

What is the standard for defining Ultra High Definition (UHD) television with a standard dynamic range?

The REC 2020 standard.

58

Which standard defines High Dynamic Range (HDR) for both High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD)?

The REC 2100 standard.

59

What is the name of Apple's lossy video compression (Codec)?

Apple's lossy video compression (codec) is ProRes 422.

60

What is Avid's lossy video compression (Codec)?

Avid DNxHD.