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Chemistry: 08 - Radioactivity > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (18)
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1

Who discovered radioactivity?

Henri Becquerel

2

Who was Henri Becquerel?

A French physicist who discovered radioactivity

3

In what year did Becquerel discover radioactivity?

1896

4

Describe how Becquerel discovered radioactivity.
3 points

He left uranium salts on a photographic plate wrapped in black paper in the darkness of a drawer in his desk

Radiation was given of by the uranium salts which penetrated the black paper and affected the photogenic plate

Becquerel then investigated this radiation and found that its emission was spontaneous

5

The radiation given of by uranium salts is spontaneous. What does this mean?

The emission of radiation was a property of the uranium itself and occurred naturally

6

Define radioactivity.

The spontaneous breaking up of unstable nuclei with the emission of one or more types of radiation

7

Uranium salts give of rays in a process called radiation, what can the uranium salts be described as during this process?

They are described as radioactive

8

Who two scientists further investigated the radioactivity of uranium salts in more detail?

Pierre and Marie Curie

9

What did the Curie's use to further investigate the radioactivity of uranium salts?

They used pitchblende in their experiments

10

What is pitchblende?

An ore of uranium which is radioactive

11

What two new elements did the Curie's isolate through the recrystallisation of pitchblende?

Polonium
Radium

12

How did the Curie's isolate Polonium and Radium?

They recrystallised pitchblende thousands of times i.e. they purified and re-purified pitchblende into smaller and smaller samples of highly radioactive material

13

In 1903 who won the Nobel Prize in physics?

Henri Becquerel
Pierre Curie
Marie Curie

14

When did Becquerel and the Curie's share a Nobel Prize?

They shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903

15

When did Marie Curie win a Nobel Prize on her own?

In 1911 she won the Nobel Prize in chemistry

16

How many types of radiation are there?

Three types

17

What are the three types of radiation?

Alpha particles
Beta particles
Gamma radiation

18

How were the three different types of radiation discovered?

By studying the behaviour of the radiation in electric and magnetic fields