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Morality and values are influenced by _______ and _________

Morality and values are influenced by culture and religion.


Morals, values, and ethics all involve judgments about what is:

Right or wrong


Define Bracketing
Why is bracketing important in counseling?

- When the counselor sets aside their own personal values within the counseling relationship.
- Helps counselor stay objective and respectful of clients values.


What are professional values?

Core values shared by the members of a profession.


Define ethics as it relates to the counseling profession?

The conduct judged as good or right for professionals to adhere to.


What does the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics say in relation to a counselor's personal values?

ACA "Code of Ethics" says counselors mist avoid imposing their own personal values on clients


What are Laws?

Rules of a society that establishes the basic principles for living together as a group


Describe the relationship between Laws versus Ethics in professional counseling.

In counseling,
- Laws dictate the minimum standards of behavior
- Ethics involve a wide range of professional functioning.
Some ethical standards dictate the minimum acceptable standards, while others identify ideals which counselors should aspire to reach.


What is "best practice"?

the very best a counselor could be expected to do


Differentiate between best practice standards vs. ethical standards.

- Best practice standards a meant to be motivational
- Ethical standards are enforceable


Describe the pyramid of the Model of professional Practice. Describe the pyramid from base to top :)

- Intentionality (having good intentions to help client)
- Principles and virtues (provide foundation for ethical reasoning)
- Knowledge of ethical, legal, and professional standards
- Self-awareness (helps prevent imposing values onto client)
- Decision-making skills and models (to guide decision making)
- Courage of your convictions (courage to do what is right)


Describe the slippery-slope phenomenon

The principle that when one begins to compromise their principles, it becomes easier and easier to compromise further, diminishing one's sense of moral self along the way.


Ethical Reasoning:
a) is a natural talent
b) is an acquired skill

Ethical reasoning is an acquired skill


Differentiate between the concept of *ethical relativism vs *ethical absolutism

- Ethical relativism says that no absolute moral standards exist that can be universally applied. If members of a culture believe that something is morally right, then it is morally right to perform the action in that culture.

- Ethical absolutism says that some moral standards are universally applicable, regardless of whether a culture or person agrees.


In counseling, ethical standards should be interpreted in:
a) a relativistic way
b) a absolutist way

a relativistic way


Differentiate between Egoism and Altruism.
Which are at play in professional practice?

Egoism and Altruism both deal with what motivates people to act morally.
Egosim- moral actions are done out of self-interest
Altruism- moral actions are done out of good-will to others.

BOTH egoism and altruism are at play in life and in counseling


Differentiate between Utilitarian vs. Deontological ethics

Utilitarian ethics - says that an action is moral if it will do the greatest good for the greatest # of people.

Deontological ethics- says that an action is justified as being moral because it is inherently right. (not because of its consequences)


What two ethical theories focus on what constitutes ethical character?

- Virtue ethics
- Relational ethics


Describe virtue ethics

- An ethical theory that focuses on which character traits are the basis of right actions.
- Believes that solutions to ethical dilemmas come from using good judgment, not from following certain rules.


Describe relational ethics

- An ethical theory that recognizes that humans exist in relationships with others.
- Believes that solutions to ethical dilemmas are found by focusing on the relationship between people involved.
- Moral actions are viewed as those which empower individuals and promote social justice.


List the 6 moral principles of the ACA Code of Ethics Preamble

1. Respect for Autonomy
2. Non-maleficence
3. Beneficence
4. Justice
5. Fidelity
6. Veracity (truthfulness)


Differentiate between "principle ethics" and "virtue ethics"

- Principle ethics focuses on actions "what should I do?"
- Virtue ethics focuses on the actor "who. should I be?"


Name the 5 Characteristics of virtuous agents (for mental health professionals)

1. Integrity
2. Discernment
3. Acceptance of emotion
4. Self-awareness
5. Interdependence with the community


Principle ethics help you resolve __________ .

Principle ethics help you resolve ethical dilemmas.


Virtue ethics help you do what?

Virtue ethics help you examine your ideals and define who you want to be as a helping professional.


Codes of ethics protect and promote the welfare of _____ and protect __________.

Codes of ethics protect and promote the welfare of clients and protect practitioners.


Describe Mandatory Ethics vs. Aspirational Ethics in regard to professional functioning.

- Mandatory ethics allow one to practice the lowest level of professional functioning while still maintaining ethics.
- Aspirational ethics describe the highest ethical standards to which a counselor can aspire.


How often is the ACA code of ethics revised?

Every 7 - 10 years


When encountering ethical dilemmas, counselors should make use of ________.

When encountering ethical dilemmas, counselors should make use of models.


Describe early ethical models from the 90’s~

- Early models broke down ethical decision making into steps, using logical approaches.
- The goal was to minimize subjectivity.