Introduction and Plant Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction and Plant Cells Deck (49):
1

When was the cell first discovered?

1665

2

Who discovered the cell?

Robert Hooke, an English scientist

3

What are cells?

The basic units of life, which make up all living things

4

What are the three main parts of cell theory?

All living things are made up of cells.
The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Cells only come from cell division.

5

What are eukaryotes?

Organisms which are made up of large and complex cells

6

What are prokaryotes?

Organisms which are made up of small and simple cells

7

Two examples of eukaryotes...

Animals and plants (have eukaryotic cells)

8

Example of a prokaryote...

Bacteria (have prokaryotic cells)

9

Three examples of the similar life functions cells carry out...

Growth, metabolism, reproduction

10

What are organelles?

The subcellular structures that are responsible for specific functions in a cell

11

What is the cell wall?

Rigid outermost layer of a plant cell, makes the cell stiff, providing mechanical support, protection

12

Animal cells do not have: cell wall or cell membrane

Cell wall

13

What is the cell membrane, what does it do, where is it found in plant cells, and what is it made of?

Protective layer surrounding every cell, separates cell from external environment, found inside the cell wall, made up of lipids and proteins

14

What is cytoplasm? What is dissolved in it?

Thick, aqueous (water-based) solution in which organelles are found. Substances like salts, nutrients, minerals, and enzymes are dissolved in it

15

What are enzymes?

Molecules involved in metabolism

16

What is the nucleus?

'Control center' of cell, contains DNA

17

The nucleus is only found in...

Eukaryotic cells

18

What is the nuclear membrane?

It separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

19

What are ribosomes and where are they found?

Small round structures that produce proteins, found in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum

20

What does ER stand for?

Endoplasmic reticulum

21

What is the endoplasmic reticulum, what does it do?

Membrane of folded sacs and tunnels, helps transport and export proteins

22

What are the types of ER?

Smooth and rough ER

23

Rough ER are covered in what?

Ribosomes

24

What is the Golgi body, what does it do?

Stack of membrane-covered sacs that prepare proteins for export

25

What is the mitochondrion and what does it do?

‘Power house’ of cell, converts energy stored in food into energy molecules for the cell’s use

26

What are the energy molecules produced by mitochondria called?

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP

27

What is the lysosome, what does it do?

Digestive center of cell, produces enzymes that break down food and recycle used components of cell

28

What are vacuoles, what is their purpose?

Large balloons surrounded by membranes, store wastes as well as useful products like water, mainly found in plants

29

What is the use of chloroplasts?

Contain green pigment that traps sunlight and converts it to sugars through photosynthesis, makes energy for plants and animals that eat them

30

What makes plant cells unique?

Have a cell wall, contain vacuoles, contain chloroplasts

31

What is the cell wall made of?

Carbohydrates molecules cellulose and lignin

32

Example of what humans use cellulose for...

Paper

33

What animals can digest cellulose, how do they do it?

Cows, sheep, goats... with help of bacteria in stomach

34

Since humans can't digest cellulose, what happens to it when we ingest it? What use does it have, and what is another name for it?

Passes through body, keeps waste moving, also called dietary fiber

35

What does lignin do - why is it important in plants?

Fills in spaces between cellulose and other molecules in cell wall, helps water move from one side of cell wall to the other

36

How many vacuoles do most adult plant cells contain?

One

37

How much % volume does an adult plant cell's vacuole take up?

Over 30% - 80%

38

How does a vacuole help support the cell, what is this called?

Uses liquid inside it that exerts an outward pressure on cell, called turgor pressure, keeps cell from collapsing inward

39

What pigment do chloroplasts contain? What does it do?

Chlorophyll - green pigment, gives leaves their colour, absorbs light energy

40

What is 'cyanobacteria', what is it considered to be?

Prokaryote capable of photosynthesis, considered to be ancestor of chloroplasts

41

What do red algae (multicellular marine algae)'s chloroplasts contain, different than other plants? What does it do?

Contains pigment phycobilin rather than chlorophyll, gives them reddish colour

42

Give examples of the many organelles plants and animals have in common.

Nucleus, cell membrane (plasma membrane in animals), endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytoplasm

43

What is biology?

The study of living things

44

What is an organism?

Any form of life

45

What is a multicellular organism?

Organism made up of many cells

46

Another word for physiology...

Functioning

47

Reasons plants are important to human life...

Produce oxygen, source of food, medicine

48

What is the range of size in plants?

<1 cm to 100m

49

What do all plants have in common?

The structure of their cells