Flashcards in Introduction and Plant Cells Deck (49):
When was the cell first discovered?
Who discovered the cell?
Robert Hooke, an English scientist
What are cells?
The basic units of life, which make up all living things
What are the three main parts of cell theory?
All living things are made up of cells.
The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Cells only come from cell division.
What are eukaryotes?
Organisms which are made up of large and complex cells
What are prokaryotes?
Organisms which are made up of small and simple cells
Two examples of eukaryotes...
Animals and plants (have eukaryotic cells)
Example of a prokaryote...
Bacteria (have prokaryotic cells)
Three examples of the similar life functions cells carry out...
Growth, metabolism, reproduction
What are organelles?
The subcellular structures that are responsible for specific functions in a cell
What is the cell wall?
Rigid outermost layer of a plant cell, makes the cell stiff, providing mechanical support, protection
Animal cells do not have: cell wall or cell membrane
What is the cell membrane, what does it do, where is it found in plant cells, and what is it made of?
Protective layer surrounding every cell, separates cell from external environment, found inside the cell wall, made up of lipids and proteins
What is cytoplasm? What is dissolved in it?
Thick, aqueous (water-based) solution in which organelles are found. Substances like salts, nutrients, minerals, and enzymes are dissolved in it
What are enzymes?
Molecules involved in metabolism
What is the nucleus?
'Control center' of cell, contains DNA
The nucleus is only found in...
What is the nuclear membrane?
It separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
What are ribosomes and where are they found?
Small round structures that produce proteins, found in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum
What does ER stand for?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum, what does it do?
Membrane of folded sacs and tunnels, helps transport and export proteins
What are the types of ER?
Smooth and rough ER
Rough ER are covered in what?
What is the Golgi body, what does it do?
Stack of membrane-covered sacs that prepare proteins for export
What is the mitochondrion and what does it do?
‘Power house’ of cell, converts energy stored in food into energy molecules for the cell’s use
What are the energy molecules produced by mitochondria called?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP
What is the lysosome, what does it do?
Digestive center of cell, produces enzymes that break down food and recycle used components of cell
What are vacuoles, what is their purpose?
Large balloons surrounded by membranes, store wastes as well as useful products like water, mainly found in plants
What is the use of chloroplasts?
Contain green pigment that traps sunlight and converts it to sugars through photosynthesis, makes energy for plants and animals that eat them
What makes plant cells unique?
Have a cell wall, contain vacuoles, contain chloroplasts
What is the cell wall made of?
Carbohydrates molecules cellulose and lignin
Example of what humans use cellulose for...
What animals can digest cellulose, how do they do it?
Cows, sheep, goats... with help of bacteria in stomach
Since humans can't digest cellulose, what happens to it when we ingest it? What use does it have, and what is another name for it?
Passes through body, keeps waste moving, also called dietary fiber
What does lignin do - why is it important in plants?
Fills in spaces between cellulose and other molecules in cell wall, helps water move from one side of cell wall to the other
How many vacuoles do most adult plant cells contain?
How much % volume does an adult plant cell's vacuole take up?
Over 30% - 80%
How does a vacuole help support the cell, what is this called?
Uses liquid inside it that exerts an outward pressure on cell, called turgor pressure, keeps cell from collapsing inward
What pigment do chloroplasts contain? What does it do?
Chlorophyll - green pigment, gives leaves their colour, absorbs light energy
What is 'cyanobacteria', what is it considered to be?
Prokaryote capable of photosynthesis, considered to be ancestor of chloroplasts
What do red algae (multicellular marine algae)'s chloroplasts contain, different than other plants? What does it do?
Contains pigment phycobilin rather than chlorophyll, gives them reddish colour
Give examples of the many organelles plants and animals have in common.
Nucleus, cell membrane (plasma membrane in animals), endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytoplasm
What is biology?
The study of living things
What is an organism?
Any form of life
What is a multicellular organism?
Organism made up of many cells
Another word for physiology...
Reasons plants are important to human life...
Produce oxygen, source of food, medicine
What is the range of size in plants?
<1 cm to 100m