Plant Taxonomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plant Taxonomy Deck (45):
1

Define taxonomy.

Method used by scientists for classifying all living things, to understand evolutionary relationships, includes species descriptions & indentification

2

When did modern taxonomy originate, and who created it?

Mid 1700s, Carl Linnaeus

3

What is a scientific name?

Two part Latin-based name given to every species

4

In taxonomy, how are plants categorized?

Based on reproductive structures, to understand evolutionary relationships

5

What are kingdoms in taxonomy?

Broad categories that all living things are grouped into

6

What kingdom are plants in?

Plantae

7

What categories are within kingdoms?

Phyla, singular phylum

8

What phyla does kingdom Plantae include? Describe each of them

Chlorophyta (green algae), Bryophyta (mosses), Pteridophyta (ferns) Gymnosperms (conifers), and Angiosperms (flowering plants)

9

What are chlorophyta?

Green algae, organisms from which plants evolved

10

What organisms do Chlorophyta include? Which of these can photosynthesize?

Unicellular flagellates (single celled organisms with tail-like structures), multicellular forms and macroscopic seaweeds. All can photosynthesize

11

Chlorophyta are primarily what? Where are they most commonly found?

Primarily aquatic, found in freshwater & marine habitats, also trees and rocks

12

What are some chlorophyta symbiotic with? What does this form?

Fungi, forming lichens

13

What group of algae are most closely related to land plants?

The Charophytes

14

What are Byrophyta?

Mosses, most primitive true plants

15

What system do Byrophyta lack? What does this mean?

Lack a vascular system, meaning they have no tissue, can't transport water throughout plant

16

What is tissue?

A group of cells a work together to perform a function

17

Describe osmosis and what Byrophyta uses it for.

Where water moves from areas with lots of it to areas with less, Byrophyta use it to acquire water, nutrients, minerals

18

Why do mosses grow low to the ground (usually only few cm high)?

They can't easily carry water and nutrients throughout a large plant

19

What do mosses have instead of roots, which they lack? What do they do?

Rhizoids, root-like threads that help anchor plant to ground without absorbing nutrients and water

20

Where do mosses usually live?

Damp, shady areas, in clumps forming dense, soft masses of vegetation

21

Byrophyta where one of the first types of plants to do what?

Establish on rocky ground

22

What can Byrophyta do, similar to lichens? What does this allow, essential for larger plants to grow?

Break down rock, allowing early stages of soil formation

23

What can Byrophyta do that's unique?

Absorb many times their weight in water, and help prevent soil erosion by capturing rainfall

24

What are Pteridophyta?

Ferns, primitive but more advanced than mosses

25

What system lets Pteridophyta transport water and nutrients around the plant?

Vascular system

26

What sort of tissues do Pteridophyta include? What do they do?

Xylem (transports water around plant), phloem (moves nutrients - mostly sugar - around plant)

27

What do roots absorb, and how does this get transported to stems and leaves?

Absorb water and nutrients from soil, transported via xylem and phloem

28

What are Pteridophyta known for? What is this?

Their fiddleheads, curled-up leaves of young ferns

29

Where do Pteridophyta live?

Variety of habitats like mountains, in rock crevices, swamps, moist forests

30

What is an example of a common fern? Where does it live?

Bracken fern, temperate & subtropical regions

31

What are gymnosperms?

Conifers, first group of vascular plants to produce seeds

32

Why are they called gymnosperms?

Gymno 'naked', sperm 'seed'. They have uncovered seeds, unlike angiosperms

33

What is the most group in gymnosperms? Give some examples.

Conifers (pines, cedars, junipers, spruces...)

34

What do conifers have? Describe their complexion.

Have cones and needles, woody

35

What are needles in conifers actually?

Long, pointed leaves

36

Conifers are evergreen. What does this mean?

They don't lose their leaves in winter, instead they gradually replace them over time

37

What sort of coating do pine needles have? What does this do?

Waxy coating, lets needles retain water throughout winter, still allowing them to use photosynthesis

38

Where are gymnosperms mainly found (terms of hemisphere)?

Northern hemisphere

39

Where to gymnosperms thrive in (terms of seasons)? Why?

Places where summers are short, winters long because ability to retain water during winter

40

Elaborate on gymnosperms' height, give example of a tall species

Among tallest trees, e.g., Sitka spruce at 90m

41

What are angiosperms?

Flowering plants, most evolved, diverse, successful plants

42

What % of kingdom Plantae are angiosperms?

90%

43

Describe angiosperms (system, seeds)

Have vascular system, seed-producing, with flowers/fruits that enclose seeds

44

How many land habitats have angiosperms colonized?

Nearly every conceivable one (deserts, alpine summits, marshes, rainforests)

45

Give some examples of angiosperms

Grasses, roses, cacti, most broadleaved trees