Flashcards in Plant Taxonomy Deck (45):
Method used by scientists for classifying all living things, to understand evolutionary relationships, includes species descriptions & indentification
When did modern taxonomy originate, and who created it?
Mid 1700s, Carl Linnaeus
What is a scientific name?
Two part Latin-based name given to every species
In taxonomy, how are plants categorized?
Based on reproductive structures, to understand evolutionary relationships
What are kingdoms in taxonomy?
Broad categories that all living things are grouped into
What kingdom are plants in?
What categories are within kingdoms?
Phyla, singular phylum
What phyla does kingdom Plantae include? Describe each of them
Chlorophyta (green algae), Bryophyta (mosses), Pteridophyta (ferns) Gymnosperms (conifers), and Angiosperms (flowering plants)
What are chlorophyta?
Green algae, organisms from which plants evolved
What organisms do Chlorophyta include? Which of these can photosynthesize?
Unicellular flagellates (single celled organisms with tail-like structures), multicellular forms and macroscopic seaweeds. All can photosynthesize
Chlorophyta are primarily what? Where are they most commonly found?
Primarily aquatic, found in freshwater & marine habitats, also trees and rocks
What are some chlorophyta symbiotic with? What does this form?
Fungi, forming lichens
What group of algae are most closely related to land plants?
What are Byrophyta?
Mosses, most primitive true plants
What system do Byrophyta lack? What does this mean?
Lack a vascular system, meaning they have no tissue, can't transport water throughout plant
What is tissue?
A group of cells a work together to perform a function
Describe osmosis and what Byrophyta uses it for.
Where water moves from areas with lots of it to areas with less, Byrophyta use it to acquire water, nutrients, minerals
Why do mosses grow low to the ground (usually only few cm high)?
They can't easily carry water and nutrients throughout a large plant
What do mosses have instead of roots, which they lack? What do they do?
Rhizoids, root-like threads that help anchor plant to ground without absorbing nutrients and water
Where do mosses usually live?
Damp, shady areas, in clumps forming dense, soft masses of vegetation
Byrophyta where one of the first types of plants to do what?
Establish on rocky ground
What can Byrophyta do, similar to lichens? What does this allow, essential for larger plants to grow?
Break down rock, allowing early stages of soil formation
What can Byrophyta do that's unique?
Absorb many times their weight in water, and help prevent soil erosion by capturing rainfall
What are Pteridophyta?
Ferns, primitive but more advanced than mosses
What system lets Pteridophyta transport water and nutrients around the plant?
What sort of tissues do Pteridophyta include? What do they do?
Xylem (transports water around plant), phloem (moves nutrients - mostly sugar - around plant)
What do roots absorb, and how does this get transported to stems and leaves?
Absorb water and nutrients from soil, transported via xylem and phloem
What are Pteridophyta known for? What is this?
Their fiddleheads, curled-up leaves of young ferns
Where do Pteridophyta live?
Variety of habitats like mountains, in rock crevices, swamps, moist forests
What is an example of a common fern? Where does it live?
Bracken fern, temperate & subtropical regions
What are gymnosperms?
Conifers, first group of vascular plants to produce seeds
Why are they called gymnosperms?
Gymno 'naked', sperm 'seed'. They have uncovered seeds, unlike angiosperms
What is the most group in gymnosperms? Give some examples.
Conifers (pines, cedars, junipers, spruces...)
What do conifers have? Describe their complexion.
Have cones and needles, woody
What are needles in conifers actually?
Long, pointed leaves
Conifers are evergreen. What does this mean?
They don't lose their leaves in winter, instead they gradually replace them over time
What sort of coating do pine needles have? What does this do?
Waxy coating, lets needles retain water throughout winter, still allowing them to use photosynthesis
Where are gymnosperms mainly found (terms of hemisphere)?
Where to gymnosperms thrive in (terms of seasons)? Why?
Places where summers are short, winters long because ability to retain water during winter
Elaborate on gymnosperms' height, give example of a tall species
Among tallest trees, e.g., Sitka spruce at 90m
What are angiosperms?
Flowering plants, most evolved, diverse, successful plants
What % of kingdom Plantae are angiosperms?
Describe angiosperms (system, seeds)
Have vascular system, seed-producing, with flowers/fruits that enclose seeds
How many land habitats have angiosperms colonized?
Nearly every conceivable one (deserts, alpine summits, marshes, rainforests)