Introduction, Classification, Prokaryotes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction, Classification, Prokaryotes Deck (22)
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1

Phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a species or group of species

2

Systematics

A discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships

3

Taxonomy

How organisms are named and classified

4

Taxon

The named taxonomic unit at any level of a hierarchy

5

Biology

The scientific study of life

6

Diversity

Variety

7

Domain

A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. Archaea, bacteria and eukarya

8

Kingdom

A taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain. 4 kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae and animalia

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Phylum

The taxonomic category above class

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Class

Taxonomic classification above order

11

Order

Taxonomic class above family

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Family

Taxonomic category above genus

13

Genus

Taxonomic category above species; designated by the first word of a species' two part scientific name

14

Species

A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, and fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups

15

Specific Epithet

The uncapitalized Latin adjective or noun that follows a capitalized genus name in binomial nomenclature and serves to distinguish a species from others in the same genus

16

Extremophiles

An organism that lives in environmental
conditions so extreme that few
other species can survive there. Extremophiles
include extreme halophiles (“salt lovers”) and
extreme thermophiles (“heat lovers”).

17

Methanogens

An organism
that produces methane as a waste product of
the way it obtains energy. All known methanogens
are in domain Archaea.

18

Cyanobacteria

A phylum of domain bacteria, kingdom eubacteria. Often called blue-green algae due to their color, they obtain their energy through photosynthesis

19

Monophyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common
ancestor and all of its descendants. Equivalent to a clade.

20

Polyphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that includes distantly related organisms but does not include their most
recent common ancestor.

21

Holophyletic

Same as monophyletic

22

Paraphyletic

Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common
ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.