Introduction the Nervous System and Topography Flashcards Preview

Semester 4 - Neuroanatomy & Neuropsychiatry > Introduction the Nervous System and Topography > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction the Nervous System and Topography Deck (41):
1

Which structures form the CNS?

Brain + Spinal Cord

(structures whose embryonic precursor is the neural tube)

 

brain = cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum & brainstem

2

Which structures form the peripheral nervous system?

Dorsal and Ventral Roots

Ganglia

Spinal Nerves

Peripheral Nerves

3

What is a ganglia in the nervous system?

a collection of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

4

What is a nuclei in the central nervous system?

a collection of cell bodies

5

Outline the basic relationship of grey to white matter in the brain and spinal cord

Brain

central grey matter with white matter covering, covered in addtional cortex of grey matter

 

Spinal Cord

central grey matter (butterfly shaped) with white matter covering

A image thumb
6

What gives the grey matter is characteristic colour?

Lack of Myelin / Fat

Highly Vascularised

7

Which parts of the neuronal cell is found within the:

Grey Matter

White Matter

Grey Matter

cell bodies and dendrites

 

White Matter

axons and supporting cells

A image thumb
8

What is the peripheral nervous system equivalent of grey amtter and white matter?

Grey Matter

ganglion - a collection of cell bodies

 

White Matter

peripheral nerve

9

At the spinal cord, ventral and dosral nerve roots arise, what is their function and what do they eventually give rise to?

Vental - motor never

Dorsal - sensory nerve

 

form Spinal Nerves (mixed motor and sensory)

A image thumb
10

What are the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal cord?

Upper - formaina magnum

 

Lower - around L1

(cord terminates at conus medullaris)

A image thumb
11

Where could you localise a lesion if a patient presents with isolated sensory deficit in a limb, rather than both motor and sensory deficit?

localised to dorsal nerve root or dorsal root ganglion

A image thumb
12

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there along the spinal cord?

31 pairs of spinal nerves

13

What is a funiculus?

A segment of white matter containing multiple distinct tracts

 

 

A image thumb
14

What is a tract in the spinal cord and what is an important feature of its function?

an area of anatomically and functionally defined white matter, connecting two regions of grey matter

 

UNIDIRECTIONAL

A image thumb
15

What is a fasiculus in the spinal cord?

a subdivision of a tract supplying a distinct region of the body

 

e.g.

fasiculus gracilis (supplies lower half of body)

fasiculus cuneatus (supplies upper half of body)

A image thumb
16

What is the relevanve of Rexed laminae when considering the action of a muscle?

Grey matter of the spinal cord is segmented in a similar fashion to the white matter

 

Multiple segments (or Rexed laminae) of grey matter in the spinal cord provide motor innervation to a particular muscle group

 

e.g. L2, L3, L4 innervate the quadriceps femoris

A image thumb
17

What is the cortex of the brain?

a folded sheet of cell bodies on the surface of the brain

18

A 'fibre' can be used synonymously with the word axon, but name the structures that form a fibre?

axon of a neurone in associaton with its supporing cells (e.g. oligodendrocytes)

19

What is the role of association fibres in the nervous system?

connect cortical regons within the same hemisphere

A image thumb
20

What is the role of commissural fibres in the nervous system?

connect the left and right hemispheres or cord halves

 

e.g. corpus callosum

A image thumb
21

What is the role of a projection fibre in the nervous system?

connect the cerebral hemisphere with the cord/brainstem

 

(or vice versa)

A image thumb
22

What is the functon of the midbrain?

eye movement

reflex responses to sounds and vision

23

What is the functon of the pons?

feeding

sleep

24

What is the functon of the medulla oblongata?

cardiovascular and respiratory centres

contrains major motor pathway (medullary pyramids)

25

What risk is posed by the uncus in herniation over the tentorial notch?

compression of the midbrain

A image thumb
26

Which structures lie immediately anterior and posterior to the central sulcus and what is their function?

Pre-Central Gyrus

primary motor cortex

 

Post-Central Gyrus

primary sensory cortex

A image thumb
27

Which structures of the brain are separated by the Lateral/Sylvian fissure?

separated the temporal lobe from the frontal/parietal lobe

A image thumb
28

Which functional area of the brain surrounds the calcarine sulcus?

Q image thumb

primary visual cortex surrounds calcarine sulcus

29

What structure is located within the medullary pyramids?

descending motor fibres

30

What is the relevance of the parahippocampal gyrus?

key cortical region for memory encoding

A image thumb
31

What is a key role of the hypothalamus?

maintain homeostasis

A image thumb
32

What is the function of the cingulate gyrus and where is it located?

important for emotion and memory

 

immediately above the corpus callosum

A image thumb
33

What risk is posed by the cerebellar tonsil (I)?

Q image thumb

can herniate and compress the medulla

34

What is the role of the fornix?

Q image thumb

major output pathway from the hippocampus, which regulates emotions

35

What is the role of the tectum and where is it located?

dorsal part of the midbrain

invovled in auditory and visual reflexes

 

also called the superior (visual) and inferior (auditory) colliculus

A image thumb
36

Structures To Identify

Q image thumb

A image thumb
37

Outline the flow of CSF around the ventricular system to the blood

CSF produced by choroid plexus

 

lateral ventricles > interventricular foramen > third ventricle > cerebral aqueduct > fourth ventricle

 

> spinal cord and;

> lateral apparatus / medial apparatus > subarachoid space > arachnoid granulation project into superior saggital sinus > CSF drains into venous blood

A image thumb
38

What is the function of the CSF?

cushioning of brain tissue

 

removal of waste products from the brain

39

Where is grey matter located within the central nervous system?

Cerebral Cortex

Nuclei Deep Within Brain

Horns of Spinal Cord

A image thumb
40

Outline the meningeal layers lining the brain

Periosteal Dural Mater

Meningeal Dural Mater

Arachnoid Mater

Pia Mater

 

A image thumb
41

Which layer of the meningies actually has a space, rather than a potential space?

Sub Arachnoid Space

 

due to the prescence of structures such as the cerebral arteries

A image thumb