Introduction the Nervous System and Topography Flashcards Preview

Semester 4 - Neuroanatomy & Neuropsychiatry > Introduction the Nervous System and Topography > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction the Nervous System and Topography Deck (41):

Which structures form the CNS?

Brain + Spinal Cord

(structures whose embryonic precursor is the neural tube)


brain = cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum & brainstem


Which structures form the peripheral nervous system?

Dorsal and Ventral Roots


Spinal Nerves

Peripheral Nerves


What is a ganglia in the nervous system?

a collection of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system


What is a nuclei in the central nervous system?

a collection of cell bodies


Outline the basic relationship of grey to white matter in the brain and spinal cord


central grey matter with white matter covering, covered in addtional cortex of grey matter


Spinal Cord

central grey matter (butterfly shaped) with white matter covering

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What gives the grey matter is characteristic colour?

Lack of Myelin / Fat

Highly Vascularised


Which parts of the neuronal cell is found within the:

Grey Matter

White Matter

Grey Matter

cell bodies and dendrites


White Matter

axons and supporting cells

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What is the peripheral nervous system equivalent of grey amtter and white matter?

Grey Matter

ganglion - a collection of cell bodies


White Matter

peripheral nerve


At the spinal cord, ventral and dosral nerve roots arise, what is their function and what do they eventually give rise to?

Vental - motor never

Dorsal - sensory nerve


form Spinal Nerves (mixed motor and sensory)

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What are the upper and lower boundaries of the spinal cord?

Upper - formaina magnum


Lower - around L1

(cord terminates at conus medullaris)

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Where could you localise a lesion if a patient presents with isolated sensory deficit in a limb, rather than both motor and sensory deficit?

localised to dorsal nerve root or dorsal root ganglion

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How many pairs of spinal nerves are there along the spinal cord?

31 pairs of spinal nerves


What is a funiculus?

A segment of white matter containing multiple distinct tracts



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What is a tract in the spinal cord and what is an important feature of its function?

an area of anatomically and functionally defined white matter, connecting two regions of grey matter



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What is a fasiculus in the spinal cord?

a subdivision of a tract supplying a distinct region of the body



fasiculus gracilis (supplies lower half of body)

fasiculus cuneatus (supplies upper half of body)

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What is the relevanve of Rexed laminae when considering the action of a muscle?

Grey matter of the spinal cord is segmented in a similar fashion to the white matter


Multiple segments (or Rexed laminae) of grey matter in the spinal cord provide motor innervation to a particular muscle group


e.g. L2, L3, L4 innervate the quadriceps femoris

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What is the cortex of the brain?

a folded sheet of cell bodies on the surface of the brain


A 'fibre' can be used synonymously with the word axon, but name the structures that form a fibre?

axon of a neurone in associaton with its supporing cells (e.g. oligodendrocytes)


What is the role of association fibres in the nervous system?

connect cortical regons within the same hemisphere

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What is the role of commissural fibres in the nervous system?

connect the left and right hemispheres or cord halves


e.g. corpus callosum

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What is the role of a projection fibre in the nervous system?

connect the cerebral hemisphere with the cord/brainstem


(or vice versa)

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What is the functon of the midbrain?

eye movement

reflex responses to sounds and vision


What is the functon of the pons?




What is the functon of the medulla oblongata?

cardiovascular and respiratory centres

contrains major motor pathway (medullary pyramids)


What risk is posed by the uncus in herniation over the tentorial notch?

compression of the midbrain

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Which structures lie immediately anterior and posterior to the central sulcus and what is their function?

Pre-Central Gyrus

primary motor cortex


Post-Central Gyrus

primary sensory cortex

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Which structures of the brain are separated by the Lateral/Sylvian fissure?

separated the temporal lobe from the frontal/parietal lobe

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Which functional area of the brain surrounds the calcarine sulcus?

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primary visual cortex surrounds calcarine sulcus


What structure is located within the medullary pyramids?

descending motor fibres


What is the relevance of the parahippocampal gyrus?

key cortical region for memory encoding

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What is a key role of the hypothalamus?

maintain homeostasis

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What is the function of the cingulate gyrus and where is it located?

important for emotion and memory


immediately above the corpus callosum

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What risk is posed by the cerebellar tonsil (I)?

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can herniate and compress the medulla


What is the role of the fornix?

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major output pathway from the hippocampus, which regulates emotions


What is the role of the tectum and where is it located?

dorsal part of the midbrain

invovled in auditory and visual reflexes


also called the superior (visual) and inferior (auditory) colliculus

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Structures To Identify

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Outline the flow of CSF around the ventricular system to the blood

CSF produced by choroid plexus


lateral ventricles > interventricular foramen > third ventricle > cerebral aqueduct > fourth ventricle


> spinal cord and;

> lateral apparatus / medial apparatus > subarachoid space > arachnoid granulation project into superior saggital sinus > CSF drains into venous blood

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What is the function of the CSF?

cushioning of brain tissue


removal of waste products from the brain


Where is grey matter located within the central nervous system?

Cerebral Cortex

Nuclei Deep Within Brain

Horns of Spinal Cord

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Outline the meningeal layers lining the brain

Periosteal Dural Mater

Meningeal Dural Mater

Arachnoid Mater

Pia Mater


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Which layer of the meningies actually has a space, rather than a potential space?

Sub Arachnoid Space


due to the prescence of structures such as the cerebral arteries

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