Introduction to lower limb and hip Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Introduction to lower limb and hip > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to lower limb and hip Deck (29):
1

bones of the lower limb

• Gluteal region – Innominate – Proximal femur • Thigh – Femur • Leg – Tibia – Fibula • Foot – Tarsals – Metatarsals – Phalanges

2

joints of the lower limb

• Hip joint • Sacroiliacjoint • Pubicsymphysis • Kneejoint • Ankle joint • Intertarsaljoints • Tarsometatarsal joints • Metatarsophalangealjoints • Interphalangealjoints

3

innervation of the lower limb

• Gluteal region – Sacral plexus (L4-S4) • Anterior thigh – Femoral nerve • Medial thigh – Obturator nerve • Posterior thigh – Sciatic nerve & bb • Leg (anterior, posterior & lateral) – Sciatic nerve bb • Foot (dorsal & plantar) – Sciatic nerve bb

4

classification of the hip joint

– DIARTHROIDAL – MULTIAXIAL – SYNOVIAL • BALL AND SOCKET

5

bones of the hip joint

• Femur • Innominate Bone – Ilium – Ischium – Pubis

6

articular surfaces of the hip joint

• Femur – Femoral Head • Hip Bone – Acetabulum – Weight-bearing Is By Ilium • Note: Acetabular Labrum: – Surrounds rim, enhancing its depth. Helps prevent dislocation

7

ligaments of the hip joint

• CAPSULAR: – ILIO-FEMORAL – ISCHIO-FEMORAL – PUBO-FEMORAL • INTRACAPSULAR – TRANSVERSE ACETABULAR LIGAMENT

8

iliofemoral ligament

– “Y” SHAPED – FROM ANTERIOR INFERIOR ILIAC SPINE – TO: – 1) UPPER PART OF TROCHANTERIC LINE – 2) LOWER PART OF TROCHANTERIC LINE – BECOMES TIGHT IN EXTENSION

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9

acetabular labrum

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10

anatomy of hip joint 

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11

Fibrous capsule

– Strong And Dense Tube-like

– Attached To Labrum Medially & Femur Laterally • Inter-trochanteric Line Anteriorly
• Neck Before Troch.Crest Posteriorly

– Tends To Be “Spiralled” Around The Joint

• Some Deep Fibrespass Circularly Around The Joint “Zona Orbicularis” Enhancing The Strength Of The Joint

12

zona orbicularis

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13

pubofemoral ligament

– Triangular In Shape

– From Superior Ramus Of The Pubis & Pubic Part Of Acetabular Rim

– Attaches To Inferior Part Of Trochanteric Line Blended With Iliofemoral Ligament

– Becomes Tight In Extension

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14

ischiofemoral ligament 

– Arises From Ischial Portion Of The Acetabular Rim

– Attaches To Neck Of Femur Below Greater Trochanter

– Becomes Tight In Extension

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15

transverse ligament 

• Bridges The Acetabular Notch Forming A “Tunnel” For Blood Vessels

• Completes The Acetabular Labrum • Gives Rise To The Ltf (Lhf)

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16

Ligamentum Teres Femoris (Ligament Of Head Of Femur)

– Is A Misnomer - Not A Ligament As Such

– Is A Tube, Housing A Branch Of The Obturator Artery

– Arises From Transverse Ligament – Attaches To Fovea Capitus

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17

disarticulated hip 

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18

synovial membrane 

– Lines The Internal Surface Of The Fibrous Capsule

– Lines That Portion Of The Neck Which Is Within The Capsule

– Lines The Ligamentum Terres Femoris – Lines The Fat Pad In Base Of Cup

19

blood supply of hip 

• Branches Of:
– Medial & Lateral Femoral Circumflex
– Superior Gluteal
– Inferior Gluteal
– Artery To Head - Branch Of The Obturator Artery

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20

nerve supply of hip 

• Branches Of:
– Femoral Nerve
– Obturator Nerve
– Superior Gluteal Nerve – Sciatic Nerve

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21

axial view 

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22

SIJ classification 

– Synovial Plane Joint

– Note: Irregular Surface

– Note: Is Not Really Freely Moving

– Note: Becomes Fibrous With Age

• Cavity Becomes Obliterated (At Least In Part) By Fibro-cartilaginous Fibres)

23

SIJ bones involved 

• Auricular Surface Of Adjacent Iliums

• Lateral Surfaces Of The Sacrum

• Note:
– Irregular “Interlocking Surfaces”

24

SIJ ligaments 

• Interosseous Ligaments

– Occupy Space Above And Behind The Joint Cavity

– Are Very Strong - Are The Chief Bond Between The Two Bones

 

25

Anterior SIJ ligaments 

• Anterior Sacroiliac Ligament:

– Thin Broad Sheet Of Transverse Fibres Covering Whole Anterior Aspect Of The Joint.

• Iliolumbar Ligament*

– Strong & Triangular
• Connects Tip Of L5 Trans. Process To The Iliac Crest
• Anterior Fibres Blend Into Anterior Sacro Iliac Ligament

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26

posterior SIJ ligaments

• Interosseous Sacroiliac Ligament

• Posterior Sacroiliac Ligament

– Short Transverse Fibres From Lateral Sacral Crest (2-3 Tubercles) To Ilium

– Long Vertical Fibres Joining Sacral Crest (3-4 Tubercles) To Posterior Iliac Spines. They Blend With Sacrotuberous Fibres

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27

28

sacrospinous ligament 

• Is Thin And Triangular

– Attached Laterally By Its Apex To Ischial Spine

– Attached Medially By Base To Lateral Margins To Sacrum And Coccyx. Fibres Mingle With Sacrotuberous Ligament

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29

sacrotuberous ligament 

• Attached

– Widely To Dorsal Surface Of Sacrum And Coccyx

– By Broad Base To Posterior Iliac Spines

– Runs Downwards And Laterally To Superior Medial Aspect Of Ischial Tuberosity

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