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Flashcards in Introduction to Medical Microbiology Deck (16)
1

endemic

a contagious disease that is always present in a population

2

Epidemic

a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely

3

Pandemic

-an epidemic that spreads internationally affecting a significant proportion of the population

4

Black death

-entered England in 1348
-it killed 30-50% of the total population

5

Symphilis

-1490s- Spain
-1494- France
-then poland, italy, england
-by 1539 over 1 million cases in Europe - 1.5% of population died

6

Spanish Flu

-march 1918, Camp Funston, Kansas
-Oct 1918 world-wide pandemic
-one third of the world population infected, 6% died
-US median life span reduced by 12 years

7

AIDS

-1981
-started only seeing it in dead patients, homosexual men

8

SARS

-Nov 2002- July 2003
-New, highly contagious pneumonia
-world-wide 8000 cases and 10% case fatality rate (>50% for over 65)

9

Geographic origin of major pandemics

-plague- Asia
-syphilis- Central America
- influenza- Kansas/ Asia
- AIDS- Africa
-SARS- Guangdong, China

10

Biological origin of major pandemics

Unknown- plague
Other human pathogens- syphilis
Animals- SARS (Civets), Many influenza (Birds), AIDS (Monkeys)

-Pandemic microorganisms have many origins

11

Endemic infections

-many endemic infections have declines
-death rates from infections have declined
-deaths of children (5-14) 1840-2006- declined except for a couple of events
-syphilis has become rare and less serious
-declined from improved living conditions and hygiene: cholera and childbirth fever, but reappear in crowded, lack of hand washing

12

Reasons for decline in endemic infections

-unknown reasons- presumably mutations
-improved living conditions and hygiene: clean air, clean water
-vaccines and antibiotics

13

New infections have appeared

Legionnnaires' disease 1976
Lyme disease 1976
AIDS 1981
Toxic shock syndrome 1982
Influenza pandemics 1918, 1937, 1957, 1968, 2009
-Hepatitis B 1965
-SARS 2003
-Intentional anthrax epidemic 2001

14

Some conditions have been re-defined as infections

-stomach ulcers in 1980s
-cervical cancer in the 1990s

15

Future changes may be expected

New conditions might appear:
-influenza mutants
-infections from remote animals or other environment
-infection with drug resistant organisms

Known conditions might be discovered to be infectious:
-Alzheimer's disease
-Multiple sclerosis
-Type-2 diabetes
-obesity
-hearts attacks and stroke

16

Infections gone because of vaccines

-smallpox
-polio
-diptheria