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Microbiology/Immunology > Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (16)
1

Adjuvant

-a compound that increases the immunogenicity of an antigen. The most common in vaccines is the aluminum salt Alum

2

Passive immunization

-the use of immune serum to give an immediate resistance to an infection

3

Active immunization

the act of immunizing with antigens to induce an immune response to a pathogen

4

Live attenuated

-a weakened virus that can replicate to a limited extent

5

Some vaccines

-Tdap
-HPV
-meningococcal conjugate vaccine
-influenza
-pneumococcal vaccine
-Hep A, Hep B
-Inactivated Polio
-MMR
-varicella
-zoster

6

Vaccines and effects on the population

-Diptheria- the number of cases severely diminished
-Polio- the number of cases decreased with the inactivated vaccine, and then increased again with the oral vaccine
-Measles: the number of cases of measles decreased after the vaccines, and about ten years later the amount of SSPE reported cases then decreased

7

Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus

-DPT- Older vaccine used whole, killed pertussis
-DTaP- replaced pertussis bacteria with acellular components (DPT=DTwP_
-Tdap- lower case "d" and "p"= reduced concentration, used in adolescents and adults
-DT and Td- boosts for diphtheria and tetanus
-Multi-vaccines ie DTaP, IPV, and Hib

8

DPT

-killed pertussis was a really good adjuvant
-very strong innate immune response often lead to fever
-some fevers were severe
-many blamed vaccine for permanent disability (neer proven)

9

DTaP

-made with pertussis toxoid and other purified components
-uses aluminum salts as the adjuvant
-much safer than DPT, with many less severe reactions
-does immunity to pertussis last as long as DPT?- graphs don't seem so

10

DTaP vaccine vs Disease

-Diphtheria- death 1 in 20
-tetanus- death 1 in 20
-pertussis- pneumonia 1 in 8, encephalopathy 1 in 20, death 1 in 20 for young children

-DTaP vaccine- continuous crying, full recovery <1 in 10,000
-acute encephalopathy 0 to 10 million
-death: none proven

11

Polio vaccine

-IPV- inactivated polio vaccine, early 1950s
-1952 58,000 cases of polio in US, 1994 0 cases
-polio is almost eradicated worldwide
-OPV-Oral polio vaccine- live attenuated strain, 1960s
-rare cases of OPV causing polio
-SV-cancer causing virus?
-AIDs (thoroughly refuted)

12

Measles Mumps Rubella

-MMR vaccine is live attenuated virus
-infants have maternal antibodies that would prevent the virus from growing. So it is given at 12-15 months

13

Andrew Wakefield and MMR causes autism

-many flaws in the paper
-even when vaccine usage goes down autism rates are going up
-Thimersol is definitely not causing it, because it has been completely taken out of vaccines and autism not decreasing
-antivaccine body count: number of preventable illness: 121,802, number of preventable deaths: 1289, number of autism diagnoses scientifically linked to vaccinations: 0

14

MMR disease vs vaccine

-Measles:
-otitis media 1 in 10
-pneumonia 1 in 20
-severe CNS 1 in 800
-Death 1 in 3000
-SSPE 1:100,000

MMR vaccine:
-fever, rash, malaise
-encephalitis or severe allergic reaction: less than 1 in a million

15

HPV Vaccine

-Cervarix and Gardasil
-both protect against HPV types 16 and 18
-70% of cervical cancer is caused by types 16 and 18
-Gardasil protects against HPV types 6 and 11, and is approved for males as well as females
-vaccination recommended for all girls aged 11 or 12

16

Rabies

-deadly viral disease
-often transmitted by a bite from an infected animal
-55,000 case per year, mostly Asia and Africa
-97% from dog bites
-vaccination of domestic animals prevents most human exposure
-postexposure prophylaxis for non-immunized: Full dose RIG, vaccine on days 0, 3,7, and 14
-postexposure prophylaxis for previously immunized: no RIG, vaccine on days 0 and 3

-RIG- rabies immune globulin
-HDCV- human diploid cell rabies vaccine
-PCECV- purified chick embryo cell vaccine