Flashcards in Introduction To Microbiology Deck (27)
What does Microbiology as a word mean ?
Micro = small
Bio = life
Logos = study of
So Microbiology = study of small life
What is Microbiology?
It is the study of organisms that are usually too small to be seen by unaided eyes
What is microorganism?
They are creatures that aren't directly visible to the unaided eye with dramatical biologic diversity
Mention examples for microorganism
How much can the human eyes see?
It can see to 1 mm
How much is the size of a virus ?
It ranges between 10 to 1000 nanometers ( one billionth = 10^-9 m )
How much is the size of a bacteria ?
It ranges between 0.1 to 5 micrometers ( one millionth = 10^-6m)
Where do we find microorganism?
In air, soil, water, animals and human bodies
What is medical Microbiology?
It is the study of biological characteristics of microorganisms and their relationship with human bodies
What are the branches of medical Microbiology?
They are :
• medical bacteriology
• medical virology
• medical mycology
What is the main reason to study medical Microbiology?
Because the majority of human diseases especially in early childhood are due to microbial infectors
How much was the average life expectancy in the USA until 1900 ?
It was 40 years of age
Why did it become 80 years in 2000 ?
Due to the near eradication of most serious early childhood diseases
Tell us about Antonio von Leeuwenhoek
He was the first to observe microscopic organisms and his single lens magnified up to 300 x
What are the microscopic organisms that he had observed?
He was the first to observe the Protozoa in 1676 and he called them animalcules
Who invented the first vaccine and when?
Edward Jenner in 1769
What was the first vaccine for?
It was a smallpox vaccine
Who created the Germs theory of disease transmission and when?
Louis Pasteur in 1857
Who created antiseptic surgery and when?
Joseph Lister in 1867
Who suggested the postulates of disease transmission and when?
Robert Koch in 1884
Who created a vaccine against rabies and when?
Louis Pasteur in 1885
What was the first antibiotics?
Who discovered the penicillin and when?
Alexandre Fleming in 1929
Who revealed the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick in 1953
Who created the Palio vaccine and when?
Jonas Salk in 1954
What are the importances of microorganism?
• only 1% of known bacteria causes human diseases
• about 4% of known bacteria causes plant diseases
• 95% of known bacteria are non pathogens