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Flashcards in Introduction to Neuroanatomy Deck (77):
1

What are the four basic morphological types of neurons?

Which is most common?

Which is associated with dorsal root ganglia?


•1 Unipolar
•2 Bipolar
•3 Multipolar
–Most neurons
•4 Pseudounipolar
–Dorsal root ganglia
 

2

Identify the types of neurons shown.

Q image thumb


•1 Unipolar
•2 Bipolar
•3 Multipolar
•4 Pseudounipolar
 

3

What does myelin do?  How?

Insulates the axon, by blocking ion channels.  Enabling saltatory conduction.

4

A unipolary neuron has how many dendrites?

Zero

5

Do humans have many unipolar neurons?  

No, they are mostly in invertebrates

6

How are the branches of neurons classified?

Primary, secondary, tertiary, etc

7

How many dendrites do pseudounipolar neurons have?

Zero, but one end of the axon works essentially as a dendrite.

8

What is the myelinating cell of the CNS?

Oligodendrocyte

9

How do Schwann cells do their thing?

Kool-aid man style.  Sacrifices self to myelinate target

10

What role does an astrocyte have in the tri-partite synapse?

Essential...

enables the synapse to exist, provides nutrients, mediates neurotransmitter levels, vasculature, etc.

11

What is a quanta of NT?

What ever amount of NT that is released by a neuron in response to an action potential.

12

What is the most prevelant excitatory NT?

Glutamate

13

What are the two main ways glutamate serves as an NT?

Ionotropic 

Metabotropic

14

Glutamate is ionotropic for what three receptors?


–AMPA—Na+ influx
–Kainate
–NMDA—Requires depolarization, some Mg2+ and then Na+ and Ca2+ influx in addition to glutamate binding
 

15

What receptors is glutamate metabotropic for?

MGLURS

16

What is an important clinical correlate for glutamate?

It can be excitotoxic

17

NMDA receptors are currently a hot topic for what two things?

Memory formation and epilepsy

18

What is the most prevalent inhibitory NT?

GABA

19

What happens due to long term use of antiepileptics?

Retardation

20

GABA can act ionotropically or metabotropically.  What are the receptors it associates with in each way?

 


•Ionotropic
–GABA A—Cl- influx

•Metabotropic
–GABA B—GPCR and 2nd messengers
–GIRK channels trigger IPSPs by expelling K+ 
 

21

What are two examples of agonists of Ionotropic GABA A receptors?

Benzos

Alcohol

22

Glycine is a NT found all throughout the body, where is it particularly active?

Spinal cord

23

Ach is synthesized from coA and choline with the CHAT enzyme, and degraded by acetyl cholinesterase.  What are the ionotropic and metabotropic receptors?

Ionotropic - Nicotinic (skeletal muscle, primarily found in PNS)

Metabotropic - Muscarinic (mostly in CNS)

24

Where are GABA receptors concentrated on the neuron?

The axon hillock

25

Is glycine inhibitory or excitatory?

Inhibitory

26

All motoneurons use what NT?

Ach

27

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder, what is it against?

Nicotinic receptors

28

What is a treatment target for myastheia gravis?

Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors

29

Dopamine receptors are metabotropic.  What are the excitatory and inhibitory receptors?


»D1 (Excitatory) and D2 (Inhibitory) receptors
 

30


Dopamine works in two major areas: SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA (VTA).  

What do each of these do?
 


»Substantia nigra is involved with basal ganglia circuit and loss of dopamine here is cause of Parkinson’s Disease (Mostly motor component)

 


»VTA involved with both addiction and schizophrenia (Mostly mental part)
 

31

Where is norepinephrine produced in the pons?

Locus Ceruleus

32

NE is the PNS ________________ NT.

sympathetic

33

What are the two indoleamines?

Serotonin and melatonin

34

Serotonin has at least 7 different receptor subtypes.  What is it related to clincially?

Related to depression.  Common RX is SSNRI

35

Where is histamine primarily made?


–Predominantly made in the hypothalamus, in the tuberomamillary nucleus

(Also from mast cells in brain)
 

36

Neuropeptides are co-released with other NT's, what are some examples?

Substance P

VIP

CCK

ADH

Endorphins

37

Adenosine is co-released with glutamate, what is it's function generally?  What is an antagonist?  What are the receptors types?


–Tends to be more sedative
–Antagonist is caffeine
–Receptors are GPCRs
 

38

NO is a gaseous NT, that diffuses quickly across and between cells, traveling in many directions.  When is it synthesized?

Immediately before use

39

What are two important components of an electrical synapse?

Connexon and connexin

40

What is a tract?


•axons clustered in the central nervous system
 

41

What are axons clustered and ensheathed in the peripheral nervous system called?

Nerves

42

Nissl body stains rough ER—what part of neuron are we looking at?

Q image thumb

Purple areas are grey matter (collections of cell bodies)

43

What is the black portion?  Stain type?

Q image thumb

Silver stain.  White matter

44

Describe the continuous division of neurons.

They do not continually divide

45

What are the intermediate filaments of the nervous system?

Neurofilaments

46

Microtubules provide anterograde and retrograde transport.  Where do they sit?

The axon terminal, from where they extend via an axon growth cone which determines the path of growth.

47

How do manufactured products of the neuron get from the cell body to the axon terminal?

Axonal transport via kinesin (anterograde) and dynein (retrograde)

A image thumb
48

What functions does anterograde axonal transport serve?


•Sending materials, nutrients from the cell body down to the axon terminal (anterograde)
–Synthesis of some neurotransmitters, synthesis of vesicles
 

49

Neurotrophins help nerve growth and migration through what kind of transport?

retrograde transport

50

Retrograde transport is important for what?


–Recycling of released materials
–Growth factors
 

51

Define these terms


•Sulcus = 
•Fissure = 
•Gyrus = 
•Pole = 
•Notch = 
•Allocortex = 
•Neocortex =
 


•Sulcus = groove
•Fissure = a really big groove
•Gyrus = Ridge
•Pole = the end
•Notch = an angular cut
•Allocortex = older, less-developed cortex of olfactory system and hippocampus (3-4 layers)
•Neocortex = more recent cortex with 6 layers 
 

52

The neocortex can be divided into what 5 lobes?


–Frontal
–Parietal
–Temporal
–Occipital
–Limbic
 

A image thumb
53

What divides the lobes of the cerebral cortex?


•Central Sulcus
–Sulcus of Rolando
•Lateral Sulcus
–Sylvian Fissure
•Parietooccipital Sulcus
•Cingulate Sulcus

•Preoccipital Notch
 

54

What is the easiest sulcus to find?

Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure)

55

What does the cingulate sulcus divide?

The limbic from the other lobes

56

What are the four major gyri of the frontal lobe?


•Precentral gyrus
•Superior gyrus
•Middle gyrus
•Inferior gyrus
 

 

57

What is the precentral gyrus involved in?


•Primary Motor Cortex (voluntary motor control)
•Premotor and Supplementary Motor Cortex (motor planning)
 

58

What is the superior gyrus involved in?


•Frontal eye fields (eye tracking)
 

59

What are the two subcomponents of the Inferior gyrus?


–Orbitofrontal cortex
•Gyrus rectus
 

60

Where is Broca's area nearly always located?

Left temporal 

61

What is the prefrontal cortex involved in?


•Executive function, decision-making
 

62

What area is damaged here?

Q image thumb

Broca's area

63

What is the parietal lobe divided into?


•Superior lobule
•Inferior lobule
•Precuneus
 

64

What are the two portions of the inferior parietal lobule?

–Supramarginal gyrus
–Angular gyrus

65

What are the main associations of the parietal lobe?


•Primary somatosensory cortex (somato-sensation)
• Language comprehension (around border with temp., frontal)
•Spatial orientation and perception

  • Hugely important in vision - information regarding movement of objects
     

66

What are the components of the temporal lobe?


•Superior
•Middle
•Inferior
•Fusiform
 

67

Where is the primary auditory cortex?

Superior temporal lobe

68

What are the two portions of the superior temporal lobe?


•Primary auditory cortex
•Wernicke’s Area (understanding speech)
 

69

What part of your temporal lobe is lighting up right now?

Q image thumb

Fusiform

70

Wernike's aphasia presents as?  Where is Wernicke's area?

Word salad, not forming words in mind.  Feels like they are making sense.

Left temporal lobe

71

Where is the primary visual cortex found?

Cuneus

72

What is your inferior visual field related to in the occipital lobe?

Cuneus

73

what is the superior visual field associated with in the occipital lobe?

Lingual gyrus

74

What is V2?  

Visual Association cortex.  Also called area 18

75

What is V1?

Primary visual cortex, AKA Area 17

76

The occipital pole is responsible for vision where?

The fovea

77